Psychology class 11 notes chapter 7


  • Human Memory Class 11 Psychology Notes
  • Bihar Board Class 11th Psychology Solutions मनोविज्ञान
  • NCERT Solutions for Class 11
  • UP Board Solutions for Class 11 Psychology मनोविज्ञान
  • CBSE Class 11 Psychology – Human Memory Revision Notes
  • Human Memory Class 11 Psychology Notes

    It might be necessary to hold an information for a few seconds. Memory is conceptualised as a process consisting of three independent, though interrelated stages. These are encoding, storage, and retrieval. Any information received by us necessarily goes through these stages Encoding Encoding is the first stage which refers to a process by which information is recorded and registered for the first time so that it becomes usable by our memory system. Whenever an external stimulus impinges on our sensory organs, it generates neural impulses In encoding, incoming information is received and some meaning is derived.

    Storage Storage is the second stage of memory. Information which was encoded must also be stored so that it can be put to use later. Storage, therefore, refers to the process through which information is retained and held over a period of time Retrieval Retrieval is the third stage of memory.

    Memory failure can occur at any of these stages. You may fail to recall an information because you did not encode it properly, or the storage was weak so you could not access or retrieve it when required. It was seen as a vast storehouse where all information that we knew was kept so that we could retrieve and use it as and when needed. Both register, store, and manipulate large amount of information and act on the basis of the outcome of such manipulations human beings too register information, store and manipulate the stored information depending on the task that they need to perform For example, when you are required to solve a mathematical problem, the memory relating to mathematical operations, such as division or subtraction are carried out, activated and put to use, and receive the output.

    This analogy led to the development of the first model of memory, which was proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in It is known as Stage Model. Sensory Memory The definition of sensory memory is the ability to retain impressions of sensory information after the original stimulus has ceased. The incoming information first enters the sensory memory. It refers to items detected by the sensory receptors which are retained temporarily in the sensory registers and which have a large capacity for unprocessed information but are only able to hold accurate images of sensory information momentarily.

    Often this system is referred to as sensory memories or sensory registers because information from all the senses are registered here as exact replica of the stimulus. If you have experienced visual after-images or when you hear reverberations of a sound when the sound has ceased, then you are familiar with iconic visual or echoic auditory sensory registers Short-term Memory short term memory is the capacity for holding a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time usually for 30 seconds or less.

    Atkinson and Shiffrin propose that information in STM is primarily encoded acoustically, i. Short-term memory acts as a scratch-pad for temporary recall of the information under process. For instance, in order to understand this sentence you need to hold in your mind the beginning of the sentence you read the rest STM is fragile but not as fragile as sensory registers where the information decays automatically in less than a second.

    Long-term Memory long term memory is memory that can last as little as a few days or as long as decades. It differs structurally and functionally from working memory or short-term memory. It is a permanent storehouse of all information It has been shown that once any information enters the long-term memory store it is never forgotten because it gets encoded semantically, i.

    What you experience as forgetting is in fact retrieval failure; for various reasons you cannot retrievethe stored information. Sense impressions, which do not receive attention, fade away quickly. Chunking control process, which operates in STM to expand its capacity, is Chunking chunking it is possible to expand the capacity of STM For creating chunks its is important to discover some organisation principals which can link similasr units.

    Chunking can also be used as to increass the memory. The number of associations you can create around the new information will determine its permanence. In elaborative rehearsals one attempts to analyse the information in terms of various associations it arouses. It involves organisation of the incoming information in as many ways as possible Experiments, which were carried out to test the stage model of memory, have produced mixed results Shallice and Warrington in the year had cited the case of a man known as KF who met with an accident and damaged a portion of the left side of his cerebral hemisphere.

    One may analyse it in terms of its physical or structural features. At an intermediate level one might consider and attend to the phonetic sounds that are attached to the letters and therefore the structural features are transformed into at least one meaningful word say, a word cat that has three specific letters. Understanding memory as an outcome of the manner in which information is encoded initially has an important implication for learning.

    In view of this, contemporary formulations envisage longterm memory as consisting of various types. All information pertaining to facts, names, dates are part of declarative memory. Procedural memory refers to memories relating to procedures for accomplishing various tasks and skills Facts retained in the declarative memory are amenable to verbal descriptions while contents of procedural memory cannot be described easily. Episodic memory contains biographical details of our lives.

    Memories relating to our personal life experiences constitute the episodic memory and it is for this reason that its contents are generally emotional in nature. Semantic memory is the memory of general awareness and knowledge. All concepts, ideas and rules of logic are stored in semantic memory Unlike episodic memory this kind of memory is not dated the contents of semantic memory relate to facts and ideas of general awareness and knowledge, it is affect-neutral and not susceptible to forgetting.

    It is important to note at this point that many ideas relating to organisation of the content of long-term memory have resulted from experiments that have employed semantic retrieval tasks. Concepts are mental categories for objects and events, which are similar to each other in one or in more than one way. Concepts once formed get organised in categories — a category itself is a concept but it also functions to organise similarities among other concepts based on common features Concepts may also get organised in schema.

    They are mental frameworks which represent our knowledge and assumptions about the world In the year , Allan Collins and Ross Quillian published a landmark research paper in which they suggested that knowledge in long-term memory is organised hierarchically and assumes a network structure.

    Elements of this structure are called nodes. Nodes are concepts while connections between nodes are labelled relationships, which indicate category membership or concept attributes. This ensures a high degree of cognitive economy, which means maximum and efficient use of the capacity of long-term memory with minimum redundancy. It has been shown that information can be coded in a perceptual format or in terms of images. An image is a concrete form of representation which directly conveys the perceptual attributes of an object.

    This is known as dual coding hypothesis, originally proposed by Paivio. According to this hypothesis, concrete nouns and information related to concrete objects are encoded and stored in the form of images while information related to abstract concepts assume a verbal and a descriptive code. Information which has been encoded and stored in the form of images leads to the development of mental models. If the reproduced version of the stored material showed any deviation, it was seen as an error and a case of memory failure.

    This storage metaphor of memory implied that the memory was a passive occurrence of learnt material that has been transported to its long-term storehouse. This was challenged by Bartlett who contended that memory is an active process and all that we have stored undergoes continuous change and modification. What we memorise is influenced by the meaning we assign to the stimulus material and once it is committed to our memory system, it cannot remain in isolation from other cognitive processes.

    Bartlett saw memory as a constructive and not a reproductive process. Bartlett used the method of serial reproduction in which the participants of his experiments recalled the memory materials repeatedly at varying time intervals. Schemas refer to an organisation of past experiences and knowledge, which influence the way in which incoming information is interpreted, stored, and later retrieved. After that the rate slows down and not much is forgotten even after many days.

    When these memory traces are not used for a long time, they simply fade away and become unavailable. This theory has been proved inadequate on several grounds. If forgetting takes place because memory traces decay due to disuse, people who go to sleep after memorising should forget more compared to those who remain awake, simply because there is no way in which memory traces can be put to use during sleep.

    Results, show just the opposite. Those who remain awake after memorising waking condition show greater forgetting than those who sleep sleeping condition. Because trace decay theory did not explain forgetting adequately Forgetting due to Interference the interference theory which suggests that forgetting is due to interference between various informations that the memory store contains.

    This theory assumes that learning and memorising involve forming of associations between items and once acquired, these associations remain intact in the memory. Interference can be proactive forward moving which means what you have learnt earlier interferes with the recall of your subsequent learning or retroactive backward moving which refers to difficulty in recalling what you have learnt earlier because of learning a new material.

    Forgetting due to Retrieval Failure Forgetting can occur not only because the memory traces have decayed over time or because independent sets of stored associations compete at the time of recall but also because at the time of recall, either the retrieval cues are absent or they are inappropriate.

    Retrieval cues are aids which help us in recovering information stored in the memory. The two prominent mnemonic devices, which make interesting use of images, are the keyword method and the method of loci. The Keyword Method Suppose you want to learn words of any foreign language. In keyword method, an English word the assumption here is that you know English language that sounds similar to the word of a foreign language is identified.

    This English word will function as the keyword. This method of learning words of a foreign language is much superior compared to any kind of rote memorisation. The Method of Loci In order to use the method of loci, items you want to remember are placed as objects arranged in a physical space in the form of visual images.

    This method is particularly helpful in remembering items in a serial order. Mnemonics of this kind are helpful because the framework you create while organisation makes the retrieval task fairly easy.

    Chunking chunking can increase the capacity of short-term memory. For creating chunks, it is important to discover some organisation principles, which can link smaller units. Therefore, apart from being a control mechanism to increase the capacity of short-term memory, chunking can be used to improve memory as well. First Letter Technique In order to employ the first letter technique, you need to pick up the first letter of each word you want to remember and arrange them to form another word or a sentence Mnemonic strategies for memory enhancement are too simplistic and perhaps underestimate complexities of memory tasks and difficulties people experience while memorising.

    In place of mnemonics, a more comprehensive approach to memory improvement has been suggested by many psychologists. Engage in Deep Level Processing If you want to memorise any information well, engage in deep level processing. Craik and Lockhart have demonstrated that processing information in terms of meaning that they convey leads to better memory as compared to attending to their surface features.

    Deep processing would involve asking as many questions related to the information as possible, considering its meaning and examining its relationships to the facts you already know.

    Minimise Interference Interference, is a major cause of forgetting and therefore you should try to avoid it as much as possible. Instead, pick up some other subject unrelated to the previous one.

    This means giving yourself intermittent rest periods while studying to minimise interferenc Give Yourself enough Retrieval Cues Cues will be easier to remember compared to the entire content and the links you have created between cues and the content will facilitate the retrieval process.

    Thomas and Robinson have developed another strategy to help students in remembering more which they called the methods of PQRST. Preview refers to giving a cursory look at the chapter and familiarising oneself with its contents. Question means raising questions and seeking answers from the lesson. After reading try to rewrite what you have read and at the end test how much you have been able to understand. At the end, a note of caution must be sounded. There is no one method that can solve all problems related to retention and bring about an overnight memory improvement.

    In order to improve your memory, you need to attend to a wide variety of factors which affect your memory such as your health status, your interest and motivation, your familiarity with the subject matter and so on. Facebook Comments.

    Bihar Board Class 11th Psychology Solutions मनोविज्ञान

    American psychologists who contributed to the cognitive school of psychology by studying learning, memory, and judgment. An important contribution is the advancement of the field of neuroscience.

    Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel Prize in Economics for his work on psychological decision making. Although psychology has changed dramatically over its history, the most important questions that psychologists address have remained constant. Some of these questions follow, and we will discuss them both in this chapter and in the chapters to come: Nature versus nurture.

    Are genes or environment most influential in determining the behaviour of individuals and in accounting for differences among people? Most scientists now agree that both genes and environment play crucial roles in most human behaviours, and yet we still have much to learn about how nature our biological makeup and nurture the experiences that we have during our lives work together Harris, ; Pinker, The proportion of the observed differences of characteristics among people e.

    We will see, for example, that the heritability of intelligence is very high about. Free will versus determinism. This question concerns the extent to which people have control over their own actions. Are we the products of our environment, guided by forces out of our control, or are we able to choose the behaviours we engage in? Most of us like to believe in free will, that we are able to do what we want—for instance, that we could get up right now and go fishing.

    And our legal system is premised on the concept of free will; we punish criminals because we believe that they have choice over their behaviours and freely choose to disobey the law. But as we will discuss later in the research focus in this section, recent research has suggested that we may have less control over our own behaviour than we think we do Wegner, Accuracy versus inaccuracy.

    To what extent are humans good information processors? Although it appears that people are good enough to make sense of the world around them and to make decent decisions Fiske, , they are far from perfect. Human judgment is sometimes compromised by inaccuracies in our thinking styles and by our motivations and emotions. For instance, our judgment may be affected by our desires to gain material wealth and to see ourselves positively and by emotional responses to the events that happen to us.

    Figure 1. Conscious versus unconscious processing. To what extent are we conscious of our own actions and the causes of them, and to what extent are our behaviours caused by influences that we are not aware of?

    Many of the major theories of psychology, ranging from the Freudian psychodynamic theories to contemporary work in cognitive psychology, argue that much of our behaviour is determined by variables that we are not aware of. Differences versus similarities. To what extent are we all similar, and to what extent are we different? For instance, are there basic psychological and personality differences between men and women, or are men and women by and large similar?

    And what about people from different ethnicities and cultures? Are people around the world generally the same, or are they influenced by their backgrounds and environments in different ways?

    Personality, social, and cross-cultural psychologists attempt to answer these classic questions. These philosophers see Figure 1.

    The earliest psychologists were the Greek Philosophers Plato left and Aristotle right. European philosophers continued to ask these fundamental questions during the Renaissance. Descartes also believed in the existence of innate natural abilities.

    A scientist as well as a philosopher, Descartes dissected animals and was among the first to understand that the nerves controlled the muscles. He also addressed the relationship between mind the mental aspects of life and body the physical aspects of life. Descartes believed in the principle of dualism: that the mind is fundamentally different from the mechanical body. Other European philosophers, including Thomas Hobbes , John Locke , and Jean-Jacques Rousseau , also weighed in on these issues.

    The fundamental problem that these philosophers faced was that they had few methods for settling their claims. But dramatic changes came during the s with the help of the first two research psychologists: the German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt , who developed a psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, and the American psychologist William James , who founded a psychology laboratory at Harvard University.

    Wundt and his students believed that it was possible to analyze the basic elements of the mind and to classify our conscious experiences scientifically. Wundt began the field known as structuralism, a school of psychology whose goal was to identify the basic elements or structures of psychological experience. Its goal was to create a periodic table of the elements of sensations, similar to the periodic table of elements that had recently been created in chemistry.

    Structuralists used the method of introspection to attempt to create a map of the elements of consciousness. Introspection involves asking research participants to describe exactly what they experience as they work on mental tasks, such as viewing colours, reading a page in a book, or performing a math problem. A participant who is reading a book might report, for instance, that he saw some black and coloured straight and curved marks on a white background.

    In other studies the structuralists used newly invented reaction time instruments to systematically assess not only what the participants were thinking but how long it took them to do so. Wundt discovered that it took people longer to report what sound they had just heard than to simply respond that they had heard the sound.

    These studies marked the first time researchers realized that there is a difference between the sensation of a stimulus and the perception of that stimulus, and the idea of using reaction times to study mental events has now become a mainstay of cognitive psychology.

    Wilhelm Wundt seated at left and Edward Titchener right helped create the structuralist school of psychology. Their goal was to classify the elements of sensation through introspection. Perhaps the best known of the structuralists was Edward Bradford Titchener Titchener was later rejected by McGill University Perhaps he was ahead of his time; Brenda Milner did not open the Montreal Neurological Institute until In his research using introspection, Titchener and his students claimed to have identified more than 40, sensations, including those relating to vision, hearing, and taste.

    An important aspect of the structuralist approach was that it was rigorous and scientific. The research marked the beginning of psychology as a science, because it demonstrated that mental events could be quantified.

    But the structuralists also discovered the limitations of introspection. Even highly trained research participants were often unable to report on their subjective experiences. When the participants were asked to do simple math problems, they could easily do them, but they could not easily answer how they did them. Thus the structuralists were the first to realize the importance of unconscious processes—that many important aspects of human psychology occur outside our conscious awareness, and that psychologists cannot expect research participants to be able to accurately report on all of their experiences.

    Functionalism and Evolutionary Psychology In contrast to Wundt, who attempted to understand the nature of consciousness, William James and the other members of the school of functionalism aimed to understand why animals and humans have developed the particular psychological aspects that they currently possess Hunt, James and the other members of the functionalist school Figure 1. Just as some animals have developed strong muscles to allow them to run fast, the human brain, so functionalists thought, must have adapted to serve a particular function in human experience.

    The functionalist school of psychology, founded by the American psychologist William James left , was influenced by the work of Charles Darwin right. Although functionalism no longer exists as a school of psychology, its basic principles have been absorbed into psychology and continue to influence it in many ways. As we will see in the chapters to come, evolutionary psychologists use evolutionary theory to understand many different behaviours, including romantic attraction, stereotypes and prejudice, and even the causes of many psychological disorders.

    A key component of the ideas of evolutionary psychology is fitness. Fitness refers to the extent to which having a given characteristic helps the individual organism survive and reproduce at a higher rate than do other members of the species who do not have the characteristic.

    For example, it has been argued that the emotion of jealousy has survived over time in men because men who experience jealousy are more fit than men who do not. According to this idea, the experience of jealousy leads men to be more likely to protect their mates and guard against rivals, which increases their reproductive success Buss, Despite its importance in psychological theorizing, evolutionary psychology also has some limitations.

    One problem is that many of its predictions are extremely difficult to test. Unlike the fossils that are used to learn about the physical evolution of species, we cannot know which psychological characteristics our ancestors possessed or did not possess; we can only make guesses about this. Nevertheless, the evolutionary approach is important to psychology because it provides logical explanations for why we have many psychological characteristics. Psychodynamic Psychology Perhaps the school of psychology that is most familiar to the general public is the psychodynamic approach to understanding behaviour, which was championed by Sigmund Freud and his followers.

    Psychodynamic psychology is an approach to understanding human behaviour that focuses on the role of unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories. Freud Figure 1. Freud believed that many of the problems that his patients experienced, including anxiety, depression, and sexual dysfunction, were the result of the effects of painful childhood experiences that they could no longer remember. Sigmund Freud and the other psychodynamic psychologists believed that many of our thoughts and emotions are unconscious.

    These explorations are revealed through talk therapy and dream analysis in a process called psychoanalysis. The founders of the school of psychodynamics were primarily practitioners who worked with individuals to help them understand and confront their psychological symptoms. The importance of the unconscious in human behaviour, the idea that early childhood experiences are critical, and the concept of therapy as a way of improving human lives are all ideas that are derived from the psychodynamic approach and that remain central to psychology.

    Behaviourism and the Question of Free Will Although they differed in approach, both structuralism and functionalism were essentially studies of the mind.

    The psychologists associated with the school of behaviourism, on the other hand, were reacting in part to the difficulties psychologists encountered when they tried to use introspection to understand behaviour.

    Behaviourism is a school of psychology that is based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind, and therefore that psychologists should limit their attention to the study of behaviour itself.

    Behaviourists believe that the human mind is a black box into which stimuli are sent and from which responses are received. They argue that there is no point in trying to determine what happens in the box because we can successfully predict behaviour without knowing what happens inside the mind.

    Furthermore, behaviourists believe that it is possible to develop laws of learning that can explain all behaviours. The first behaviourist was the American psychologist John B.

    Watson Watson was influenced in large part by the work of the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov , who had discovered that dogs would salivate at the sound of a tone that had previously been associated with the presentation of food. Watson and the other behaviourists began to use these ideas to explain how events that people and other organisms experienced in their environment stimuli could produce specific behaviours responses.

    In the best known of his studies, an eight-month-old boy named Little Albert was used as the subject. Here is a summary of the findings: The boy was placed in the middle of a room; a white laboratory rat was placed near him and he was allowed to play with it. The child showed no fear of the rat.

    The child cried when he heard the noise. After several such pairings of the two stimuli, the child was again shown the rat. Now, however, he cried and tried to move away from the rat.

    NCERT Solutions for Class 11

    It is important to note at this point that many ideas relating to organisation of the content of long-term memory have resulted from experiments that have employed semantic retrieval tasks. Concepts are mental categories for objects and events, which are similar to each other in one or in more than one way. Concepts once formed get organised in categories — a category itself is a concept but it also functions to organise similarities among other concepts based on common features Concepts may also get organised in schema.

    They are mental frameworks which represent our knowledge and assumptions about the world In the yearAllan Collins and Ross Quillian published a landmark research paper in which they suggested that knowledge in long-term memory is organised hierarchically and assumes a network structure.

    Elements of this structure are called nodes. Nodes are concepts while connections between nodes are labelled relationships, which indicate category membership or concept attributes.

    This ensures a high degree of cognitive economy, which means maximum and efficient use of the capacity of long-term memory with minimum redundancy. It has been shown that information can be coded in a perceptual format or in terms of images. An image is a concrete form of representation which directly conveys the perceptual attributes of an object.

    This is known as dual coding hypothesis, originally proposed by Paivio. According to this hypothesis, concrete nouns and information related to concrete objects are encoded and stored in the form of images while information related to abstract concepts assume a verbal and a descriptive code.

    Information which has been encoded and stored in the form of images leads to the development of mental models. If the reproduced version of the stored material showed any deviation, it was seen as an error and a case of memory failure. This storage metaphor of memory implied that the memory was a passive occurrence of learnt material that has been transported to its long-term storehouse.

    This was challenged by Bartlett who contended that memory is an active process and all that we have stored undergoes continuous change and modification. What we memorise is influenced by the meaning we assign to the stimulus material and once it is committed to our memory system, it cannot remain in isolation from other cognitive processes. Bartlett saw memory as a constructive and not a reproductive process. Bartlett used the method of serial reproduction in which the participants of his experiments recalled the memory materials repeatedly at varying time intervals.

    Schemas refer to an organisation of past experiences and knowledge, which influence the way in which incoming information is interpreted, stored, and later retrieved. After that the rate slows down and not much is forgotten even after many days.

    When these memory traces are not used for a long time, they simply fade away and become unavailable. This theory has been proved inadequate on several grounds.

    If forgetting takes place because memory traces decay due to disuse, people who go to sleep after memorising should forget more compared to those who remain awake, simply because there is no way in which memory traces can be put to use during sleep.

    Results, show just the opposite. Those who remain awake after memorising waking condition show greater forgetting than those who sleep sleeping condition. Because trace decay theory did not explain forgetting adequately Forgetting due to Interference the interference theory which suggests that forgetting is due to interference between various informations that the memory store contains.

    This theory assumes that learning and memorising involve forming of associations between items and once acquired, these associations remain intact in the memory. Interference can be proactive forward moving which means what you have learnt earlier interferes with the recall of your subsequent learning or retroactive backward moving which refers to difficulty in recalling what you have learnt earlier because of learning a new material.

    Forgetting due to Retrieval Failure Forgetting can occur not only because the memory traces have decayed over time or because independent sets of stored associations compete at the time of recall but also because at the time of recall, either the retrieval cues are absent or they are inappropriate.

    Retrieval cues are aids which help us in recovering information stored in the memory. The two prominent mnemonic devices, which make interesting use of images, are the keyword method and the method of loci.

    The Keyword Method Suppose you want to learn words of any foreign language. In keyword method, an English word the assumption here is that you know English language that sounds similar to the word of a foreign language is identified.

    This English word will function as the keyword. This method of learning words of a foreign language is much superior compared to any kind of rote memorisation. The Method of Loci In order to use the method of loci, items you want to remember are placed as objects arranged in a physical space in the form of visual images. This method is particularly helpful in remembering items in a serial order. Mnemonics of this kind are helpful because the framework you create while organisation makes the retrieval task fairly easy.

    Chunking chunking can increase the capacity of short-term memory. For creating chunks, it is important to discover some organisation principles, which can link smaller units. Therefore, apart from being a control mechanism to increase the capacity of short-term memory, chunking can be used to improve memory as well.

    First Letter Technique In order to employ the first letter technique, you need to pick up the first letter of each word you want to remember and arrange them to form another word or a sentence Mnemonic strategies for memory enhancement are too simplistic and perhaps underestimate complexities of memory tasks and difficulties people experience while memorising.

    UP Board Solutions for Class 11 Psychology मनोविज्ञान

    In place of mnemonics, a more comprehensive approach to memory improvement has been suggested by many psychologists. Engage in Deep Level Processing If you want to memorise any information well, engage in deep level processing.

    Craik and Lockhart have demonstrated that processing information in terms of meaning that they convey leads to better memory as compared to attending to their surface features. Deep processing would involve asking as many questions related to the information as possible, considering its meaning and examining its relationships to the facts you already know. Minimise Interference Interference, is a major cause of forgetting and therefore you should try to avoid it as much as possible.

    Instead, pick up some other subject unrelated to the previous one. This means giving yourself intermittent rest periods while studying to minimise interferenc Give Yourself enough Retrieval Cues Cues will be easier to remember compared to the entire content and the links you have created between cues and the content will facilitate the retrieval process.

    Wundt and his students believed that it was possible to analyze the basic elements of the mind and to classify our conscious experiences scientifically. Wundt began the field known as structuralism, a school of psychology whose goal was to identify the basic elements or structures of psychological experience.

    Its goal was to create a periodic table of the elements of sensations, similar to the periodic table of elements that had recently been created in chemistry. Structuralists used the method of introspection to attempt to create a map of the elements of consciousness.

    Introspection involves asking research participants to describe exactly what they experience as they work on mental tasks, such as viewing colours, reading a page in a book, or performing a math problem. A participant who is reading a book might report, for instance, that he saw some black and coloured straight and curved marks on a white background. In other studies the structuralists used newly invented reaction time instruments to systematically assess not only what the participants were thinking but how long it took them to do so.

    Wundt discovered that it took people longer to report what sound they had just heard than to simply respond that they had heard the sound. These studies marked the first time researchers realized that there is a difference between the sensation of a stimulus and the perception of that stimulus, and the idea of using reaction times to study mental events has now become a mainstay of cognitive psychology.

    Wilhelm Wundt seated at left and Edward Titchener right helped create the structuralist school of psychology. Their goal was to classify the elements of sensation through introspection. Perhaps the best known of the structuralists was Edward Bradford Titchener Titchener was later rejected by McGill University Perhaps he was ahead of his time; Brenda Milner did not open the Montreal Neurological Institute until In his research using introspection, Titchener and his students claimed to have identified more than 40, sensations, including those relating to vision, hearing, and taste.

    An important aspect coromal 14ft caravan the structuralist approach was that it was rigorous and scientific.

    The research marked the beginning of psychology as a science, because it demonstrated that mental events could be quantified. But the structuralists also discovered the limitations of introspection. Even highly trained research participants were often unable to report on their subjective experiences. When the participants were asked to do simple math problems, they could easily do them, but they could not easily answer how they did them.

    Thus the structuralists were the first to realize the importance of unconscious processes—that many important aspects of human psychology occur outside our conscious awareness, and that psychologists cannot expect research participants to be able to accurately report on all of their experiences.

    Functionalism and Evolutionary Psychology In contrast to Wundt, who attempted to understand the nature of consciousness, William James and the other members of the school of functionalism aimed to understand why animals and humans have developed the particular psychological aspects that they currently possess Hunt, James and the other members of the functionalist school Figure 1.

    Just as some animals have developed strong muscles to allow them to run fast, the human brain, so functionalists thought, must have adapted to serve a particular function in human experience.

    The functionalist school of psychology, founded by the American psychologist William James leftwas influenced by the work of Charles Darwin right. Although functionalism no longer exists as a school of psychology, its basic principles have been absorbed into psychology and continue to influence it in many ways.

    As we will see in the chapters to come, evolutionary psychologists use evolutionary theory to understand many different behaviours, including romantic attraction, stereotypes and prejudice, and even the causes of many psychological disorders.

    A key component of the ideas of evolutionary psychology is fitness. Fitness refers to the extent to which having a given characteristic helps the individual organism survive and reproduce at a higher rate than do other members of the species who do not have the characteristic. For example, it has been argued that the emotion of jealousy has survived over time in men because men who experience jealousy are more fit than men who do not.

    According to this idea, the experience of jealousy leads men to be more likely to protect their mates and guard against rivals, which increases their reproductive success Buss, Despite its importance in psychological theorizing, evolutionary psychology also has some limitations.

    One problem is that many of its predictions are extremely difficult to test.

    CBSE Class 11 Psychology – Human Memory Revision Notes

    Unlike the fossils that are used to learn about the physical evolution of species, we cannot know which psychological characteristics our ancestors possessed or did not possess; we can only make guesses about this.

    Nevertheless, the evolutionary approach is important to psychology because it provides logical explanations for why we have many psychological characteristics. Psychodynamic Psychology Perhaps the school of psychology that is most familiar to the general public is the psychodynamic approach to understanding behaviour, which was championed by Sigmund Freud and his followers.

    Psychodynamic psychology is an approach to understanding human behaviour that focuses on the role of unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories. Freud Figure 1. Freud believed that many of the problems that his patients experienced, including anxiety, depression, and sexual dysfunction, were the result of the effects of painful childhood experiences that they could no longer remember. Sigmund Freud and the other psychodynamic psychologists believed that many of our thoughts and emotions are unconscious.

    These explorations are revealed through talk therapy and dream analysis in a process called psychoanalysis. The founders of the school of psychodynamics were primarily practitioners who worked with individuals to help them understand and confront their psychological symptoms.

    The importance of the unconscious in human behaviour, the idea that early childhood experiences are critical, and the concept of therapy as a way of improving human lives are all ideas that are derived from the psychodynamic approach and that remain central to psychology. Behaviourism and the Question of Free Will Although they differed in approach, both structuralism and functionalism were essentially studies of the mind. The psychologists associated with the school of behaviourism, on the other hand, were reacting in part to neverwinter essence bosses difficulties psychologists encountered when they tried to use introspection to understand behaviour.

    Behaviourism is a school of psychology that is based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind, and therefore that psychologists should limit their attention to the study of behaviour itself. Behaviourists believe that the human mind is a black box into which stimuli are sent and from which responses are received. They argue that there is no point in trying to determine what happens in the box because we can successfully predict behaviour without knowing what happens inside the mind.

    Furthermore, behaviourists believe that it is possible to develop laws of learning that can explain all behaviours. The first behaviourist was the American psychologist John B.

    Watson Watson was influenced in large part by the work of the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlovwho had discovered that dogs would salivate at the sound of a tone that had previously been associated with the presentation of food. Watson and the other behaviourists began to use these ideas to explain how events that people and other organisms experienced in their environment stimuli could produce specific behaviours responses.

    In the best known of his studies, an eight-month-old boy named Little Albert was used as the subject. Here is a summary of the findings: The boy was placed in the middle of a room; a white laboratory rat was placed near him and he was allowed to play with it. The child showed no fear of the rat.

    The child cried when he heard the noise. After several such pairings of the two stimuli, the child was again shown the rat. Now, however, he cried and tried to move away from the rat.

    In line with the behaviourist approach, the boy had learned to associate the white rat with the loud noise, resulting in crying. Skinner was a member of the behaviourist school of psychology. He argued that free will is an illusion and that all behaviour is determined by environmental factors. The most famous behaviourist was Burrhus Frederick B. Skinner towho expanded the principles of behaviourism and also brought them to the attention of the public at large.

    Skinner Figure 1. And he used the general principles of behaviourism to develop theories about how best to teach children and how to create societies that were peaceful and productive. Skinner even developed a method for studying thoughts and feelings using the behaviourist approach Skinner, The behaviourist research program had important implications for the fundamental questions about nature and nurture and about free will.

    In terms of the nature-nurture debate, the behaviourists agreed with the nurture approach, believing that we are shaped exclusively by our environments. They also argued that there is no free will, but rather that our behaviours are determined by the events that we have experienced in our past. In one demonstration of the misperception of our own free will, neuroscientists Soon, Brass, Heinze, and Haynes placed their research participants in a functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI brain scanner while they presented them with a series of letters on a computer screen.

    The letter on the screen changed every half second. The participants were asked, whenever they decided to, to press either of two buttons. Then they were asked to indicate which letter was showing on the screen when they decided to press the button.

    The researchers analyzed the brain images to see if they could predict which of the two buttons the participant was going to press, even before the letter at which he or she had indicated the decision to press a button. Suggesting that the intention to act occurred in the brain before the research participants became aware of it, the researchers found that the prefrontal cortex region of the brain showed activation that could be used to predict the button pressed as long as 10 seconds before the participants said that they had decided which button to press.

    Research has found that we are more likely to think that we control our behaviour when the desire to act occurs immediately prior to the outcome, when the thought is consistent with the outcome, and when there are no other apparent causes for the behaviour. Aarts, Custers, and Wegner asked their research participants to control a rapidly moving square along with a computer that was also controlling the square independently.

    The participants pressed a button to stop the movement. When participants were exposed to words related to the location of the square just before they stopped its movement, they became more likely to think that they controlled the motion, even when it was actually the computer that stopped it. Because we normally expect that our behaviours will be met with success, when we are successful we easily believe that the success is the result of our own free will.

    When an action is met with failure, on the other hand, we are less likely to perceive this outcome as the result of our free will, and we are more likely to blame the outcome on luck or our teacher Wegner, The behaviourists made substantial contributions to psychology by identifying the principles of learning. Although the behaviourists were incorrect in their beliefs that it was not possible to measure thoughts and feelings, their ideas provided new ideas that helped further our understanding regarding the nature-nurture debate and the question of free will.

    The ideas of behaviourism are fundamental to psychology and have been developed to help us better understand the role of prior experiences in a variety of areas of psychology.

    The Cognitive Approach and Cognitive Neuroscience Science is always influenced by the technology that surrounds it, and psychology is no exception. Thus it is no surprise that beginning in the s, growing numbers of psychologists began to think about the brain and about human behaviour in terms of the computer, which was being developed and becoming publicly available at that time.

    The analogy between the brain and the computer, although by no means perfect, provided part of the impetus for a new school of psychology called cognitive psychology.

    Cognitive psychology is a field of psychology that studies mental processes, including perception, thinking, memory, and judgment. These actions correspond well to the processes that computers perform. Although cognitive psychology began in earnest in the s, earlier psychologists had also taken a cognitive orientation.


    Psychology class 11 notes chapter 7