This is largely determined through the consideration of certain behavioral and physiological cues as well as larger contextual and situational information.
What methods are used to detect deception? While historians are not entirely sure where or when deception detection practices originated, it is clear that humans have been trying to figure out how to tell if someone is lying for centuries. Fortunately, the methodologies have evolved drastically over time, shifting first from non-scientific testing i.
The challenges of deception detection There is no single, definitive sign of deceit itself; no muscle twitch, facial expression, or gesture proves that a person is lying with absolute certainty. Therefore, most modern-day methods of deception detection heavily rely on a variety of methods to collect, analyze and interpret emotional and physiological data.
However, any data collected merely expose emotional clues that may or may not be related to deception. There are still many more possible reasons why a person might experience sweating palms, especially during high stakes scenarios.
To determine the actual cause, further investigation and analysis is needed. Jumping to conclusions, while easy to do, can be harmful to everyone involved and must be avoided.
Do lie detectors actually work? The polygraph lie detector works on the same principles as detecting behavioral betrayals of deceit, and it is vulnerable to the same problems. The polygraph exam does not detect lies, just signs of emotion and requires further investigation. What do lies look like? Many observable signs have been linked to lying, but they are not always shown by everyone. The absence of these signals does not mean a person is truthful, but their presence, especially when there are multiple signs, is very suggestive of potential deceit.
The basic process of behavioral deception detection then involves looking for clues that signal some kind of change or deviation from this baseline.
IELTS Academic Reading ‘How to Spot a Liar’ Answers
IELTSData Reading Passage 44 Phrenology — Interpreting the Mind Questions 1 — 14 Phrenology — Interpreting the Mind Phrenology is the doctrine that proposes that psychological traits of personality, intellect, temperament, and character are ascertainable from analysis of the protrusions and depressions in the skull.
It was an idea created by Franz Joseph Gall in Gall referred to his new idea in English as cranioscopy. He speculated that other internal qualities, besides memory, might be indicated by an external feature also. Gall theorized that traits were located in particular regions of the brain. Enlargements or expressions in the brain in particular areas meant a greater than normal or less than normal quantity of the given trait.
It was assumed that the external contour of the skull accurately reflected the external contour of the brain where traits were localized. Carl Cooter, another advocate of phrenology asserted that there were five major parts to phrenology theory. The first was simply that the brain was the organ of the mind. The second was that the brain was not a homogeneous unity, but a compilation of mental organs with specific functions.
The third was that the organs were topographically localized. All of these parts were based on observations Cooter made. Leibl further theorized that the different regions of the brain would grow or shrink with usage, just as muscles will grow larger when exercised.
If a certain part of the brain grew from increased use, the skull covering that part of the brain would bulge out to make room for the expanded brain tissue. To Spurzheim phrenology was the science that could tell people what they are and why exactly they are who they are. Spurzheim wrote that the premise of phrenology was to use the methods to identify individuals who stood out at both poles of society: those with a propensity for making important social contributions and those with a greater than the normal tendency for evil.
The former was to be encouraged, nurtured, and developed in order to maximize their potential for good. The latter needed to be curbed and segregated to protect society from their predisposition to be harmful to others. John Fancher, a critic of phrenology, states that it was a curious mixture, combining some keen observations and insights with an inappropriate scientific procedure.
Most criticism is aimed at the poor methods used by phrenologists and the tangent from the standard scientific procedure in investigating. Pierre Flourens was also appalled by the shoddy methods of phrenologists and was determined to study the functions of the brain strictly by experiment.
The specific technique that Flourens used was ablation, the surgical removal of certain small parts of the brain. Flourens was a very skilled surgeon and used ablation to cleanly excise certain slices from the brain. He ablated precisely determined portions of bird, rabbit, and dog brains. Flourens then observed the behavior of his subject. Since, for obvious ethical reasons, he was only able to use animals, he could not test uniquely human faculties.
He never tested or measured any behavior until he nursed his subjects back to health after their operations. Gall asserted that he wiped out many organs all at once when he ablated part of the brain.
This explained the general lowering of all functions in many of his subjects. Despite attacks from Flourens and others, phrenology held its appeal to scientists in Europe who would bring the idea across to America where it would flourish. Questions 1 — 8 Answer questions 1 — 8 below by writing the initials of the phrenology scientist to which the questions refer in boxes 1- 8 on your answer sheet. Which phrenology scientist did not use the term phrenology?
Which phrenology scientist theorized that the size of certain parts of human brains would increase if they were used a lot? Which TWO phrenology scientists did not agree with the way phrenologists came to their conclusions? Which phrenology scientist theorized that the human brain was a collection of cerebral organs? Which phrenology scientist was an expert at performing operations? Which phrenology scientist proposed theories based on his observations of colleagues?
The Phrenology Scientists.
IELTS Reading Practice Test 97 with Answers
The challenges of deception detection There is no single, definitive sign of deceit itself; no muscle twitch, facial expression, or gesture proves that a person is lying with absolute certainty. Therefore, most modern-day methods of deception detection heavily rely on a variety of methods to collect, analyze and interpret emotional and physiological data. However, any data collected merely expose emotional clues that may or may not be related to deception.
There are still many more possible reasons why a person might experience sweating palms, especially during high stakes scenarios. To determine the actual cause, further investigation and analysis is needed.
Employees will be motivated if they find personal belonging to the company. In the meantime, the most commitment will be achieved by the employee on condition that the force of motivation within the employee affects the direction, intensity and persistence of decision and behavior in company. The Drive to Comprehend The drive to comprehend motivates many employees to higher performance.
For years, it has been known that setting stretch goals can greatly impact performance. Organizations need to ensure that the various job roles provide employees with simulation that challenges them or allow them to grow. The Drive to Defend The drive to defend is often the hardest lever to pull. This drive manifests itself as a quest to create and promote justice, fairness, and the ability to express ourselves freely.
The organizational lever for this basic human motivator is resource allocation. This drive is also met through an employee feeling connection to a company. If their companies are merged with another, they will show worries. Two studies have been done to find the relations between the four drives and motivation. The article based on two studies was finally published in Harvard Business Review. The studies show that the drive to bond is most related to fulfilling commitment, while the drive to comprehend is most related to how much effort employees spend on works.
The drive to acquire can be satisfied by a rewarding system which ties rewards to performances, and gives the best people opportunities for advancement. For drive to defend, a study on the merging of P company and H company shows that employees in former company show an unusual cooperating attitude. The key to successfully motivate employees is to meet all drives.
Each of these drives is important if we are to understand employee motivation. These four drives, while not necessarily the only human drives, are the ones that are central to unified understanding of modern human life. A The theory of motivating employees is starting to catch attention in organizations in recent years. During a battle on the banks of the Tarus River, Islamic warriors captured a Chinese caravan which happened to include several papermakers.
They spirited them away to Samarkand, which soon became a great centre for paper production. Finally, when the Moors from North Africa invaded Spain and Portugal they brought the technology with them and so it was that papermaking entered Europe in the 12th century.
Deception detection tests and hypnosis in the criminal investigation
C In Europe, the use of papyrus had dropped out in the 9th century. The preferred medium for the artists and literati of the time was the smooth and lustrous parchment.
However, parchment — made from animal skin — was extremely expensive. The notion of paper being used as a practical everyday item did not occur until the 15th Century when Johann Gutenburg perfected movable type and sparked off a revolution in mass communication. The birth of the modern paper and printing industry is commonly marked from this time. D Printing technology rapidly developed and created an ever increasing demand for paper.
Early european paper was made from recycled cotton and linen — and a huge trade quickly developed around the trading of old rags. It is said that the black plague entered England from Europe on these old rags. Others experimented with fibres such as straw, cabbage, wasp nests and finally wood. This resulted in inexpensive — and replaceable — materials for paper making.
Today, the long soft fibres of softwoods such as spruce have become the most suitable source of pulp for mass production. In the late 18th century the labours of Nicholas Luis Robert resulted in the creation of a machine that could produce a seamless length of paper on an endless wire mesh with squeeze rollers at one end. Perfected and marketed by the Fourdrinier brothers, the new machine made papers that soon replaced traditional single sheets made by hand.
In Europe and America, the mass-production of paper became a thriving industry supplying huge volumes of paper for a huge variety of purposes. F Papermaking kultura sa bohol essence is a simple process.
Whether using recycled materials or fresh organic matter, the process starts as the material is shredded into small strips and soaked overnight to loosen the fibres. Next, the fibres are boiled for 2 to 6 hours, being turned every so often. When finished, the fibres are washed with fresh water to remove impurities and then small particles or specks are removed by hand.
The fibres are beaten in a blender creating a creamy pulp. At this stage, dyes can be added to create coloured papers.
The pulp is then poured into a large tub and the fibres are suspended in the water. Framed screens are lowered into the water and then lifted to the surface catching the fibres onto the screen. The screens are then dried, pressed and smoothed.
G In the west, as industrial paper production boomed, the art of hand paper-making has been driven nearly to extinction — being practiced only by a few fine artists and crafts people.
CAE Reading and Use of English Practice Test 6
However, in small areas throughout Asia, the tradition has lived on through regular and rice paper made by hand. More commonly it is made from the versatile mulberry tree — varieties of which are also used for feeding silkworms and in medicine. In contrast to the cold precision and standardisation which industrial production demands, the soft, subtle textures and natural feeling of handmade paper is said to echo the warm heart of the papermaker who makes each sheet with devotion.
H The new Millennium will be dominated by the tremendous progress that has been made in computer science, thus triggering a complete change in our commercial and private communication and information behaviour.
Does this mean that the paper era will come to an end? Clearly there will be a huge amount of data being generated electronically, but the issue is how to preserve it. The difficulties of data storage over a long period of time are well known for example, the durability of disks; frequent changes of hardware and software, electronic breakdowns etc.
IELTSData Reading Passage 44 Phrenology – Interpreting the Mind
Once again, paper offers the most convenient and durable storage option. From the list of headings below choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B — H. Write the appropriate number i — xi in boxes 28 — 34 on your answer sheet.
NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.