The search for life in outer space ielts reading answers


  • IELTS Speaking Test 5
  • Reading Test 28 Question 14-26 (A.c)
  • IELTS Topics: Space
  • Is There Anybody Out There Reading Answers
  • Онлайн-тест IELTS Reading с ответами (Academic)
  • IELTS Reading Practice Test 68 with Answers
  • IELTS Speaking Test 5

    Is humanity running out of space or will we find new frontiers? Over years have passed since this theoretical milestone but mankind, admittedly somewhat more cramped, is still expanding and will continue to do so.

    Urbanization is now a more evident worldwide phenomenon than previously as even greater numbers of people drift from rural areas to vast cities all over the world like Tokyo, Mexico City and Mumbai These mega-cities, i. Now teeming with humanity, they are hungry for one increasingly valuable resource: land.

    Not only is more land required for accommodation, but also for a wide range of infrastructure facilities. Transport systems including roads within and between cities need to be constructed or upgraded to create motorways; green fields are turned into airports; the virgin forest is stripped to provide food and firewood. In poorer regions, this newly exposed land becomes desert completing the cycle of destruction.

    Section C Hitherto, the most common practice for the utilization of expensive space for living and working has been to build upwards; hence, the demand for ever higher buildings, both apartment and commercial, in major cities like New York, Shanghai and Singapore all vying with each other for the tallest buildings. There has also been a tradition for building underground, not just for transport systems, but for the storage of waste, depositories for books etc.

    In the past, in many countries, Holland and the UK included, marshes and floodplains have been reclaimed from the sea. Like the city of Venice in Italy, housing complexes and even airports have now been constructed off-shore to amazing effect. In Japan, Kansai International Airport has been built off-shore on a man-made island at vast expense and in Dubai, a very imaginative and expensive housing complex in the shape of a palm tree is being built just off the coast on land created by a construction company.

    However, these and other developments are at risk from rising sea levels as a consequence of global warming. Section D But where will the human race go when planet earth is full? There have been many theories put forward about the human population moving to outer space. Marshall Savage , , for example, has projected that the human population will reach five quintillions throughout the solar system by the year , with the majority living in the asteroid belt. Feeman Dyson favors the Kuiper belt as the future home of humanity, suggesting this could happen within a few centuries.

    Section E Habitation in outer space in huge stations is no longer just a dream, but a reality. A permanent international space station now orbits the earth. The first commercial tourist recently went into outer space with more trips planned for the near future. This is only the beginning, but the development of space hotels is not far-off. There is no knowing where mankind may end up. But the ideas about off-world habitation are not fanciful and I am sure I am not alone in fantasizing about summer holidays spent watching the moons rising in some far-flung planet or on a floating hotel somewhere on the Andromeda nebula.

    Choose the correct heading for sections B-E from the list of headings below. List of Headings i. How the problem of land scarcity has been overcome in the past ii. Various predictions about future solutions to a lack of space iii. The effects of population growth on land availability iv. The importance of the new British Library v. An expanding population vi. A description of a mega-city vii. A firm belief that human habitation of outer space will occur viii.

    The importance of having an international space station Example Answer.

    Reading Test 28 Question 14-26 (A.c)

    B India and South Africa. C Poland. B changes in migration and international trade. C cheaper production and transport. D changes in migration and transport. A in Australia B in India and the US C in Switzerland 18 The writer suggests that: A the quality of products at specialist shops will always be better than at supermarkets. B specialist shops will close down because supermarkets will be cheaper.

    D specialist shops already supply minority groups, yet supermarkets should compete with them. Question 19 Which chart below — A, B, or C — best describes the relationship between shoppers at one Sydney supermarket, and what research suggests that same supermarket should sell? Write your answer in box 19 on your answer sheet.

    Despite this, families bought favourite brands and ate less. This did not stop migrants from buying what they were used to. This theory has been modified now. Advertisements You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. How about a kangaroo three metres tall? Such creatures were all Australian megafauna, alive during the Pleistocene. Giant snakes, crocodiles, and birds were also common.

    Wombats and kangaroos reached more than kg lb , and even koalas weighed 16 kg 35 lb. Then, rather suddenly, around 46 thousand years ago 46 kyr , all these animals became extinct. Some scientists claim this was due to environmental pressures, like climate change or fire; others favour predation. One hundred and sixty archaeological sites in Australia and New Guinea have been much surveyed.

    There is some disagreement about the dates of these sites; meantime, a forceful movement aims to push human settlement back before 45 kyr. Dating the rare bones of megafauna was highly controversial until 20 years ago when a technique called optically stimulated luminescence OSL was developed. The largest OSL dating of megafauna was carried out in by Roberts, who put the extinction date for megafauna at around 46 kyr, very early on in the time of human habitation.

    Bones that show cutting, burning, or deliberate breaking by humans are virtually non-existent, and thus far, not one megafaunal skeleton shows conclusively an animal was killed by humans. As a result, many scientists still believe that humans were not responsible for megafaunal extinction — especially as the weapons of Australian Aborigines at 45 kyr were only wooden clubs and spears.

    There is, perhaps, a cultural record of megafauna in Aboriginal myths. The Adnyamathanha people of South Australia tell of the Yamuti, something like a diprotodon. An ancient rock painting in Arnhem Land shows an extinct giant echidna. But this record is small and open to interpretation. If the Aborigines were not technologically advanced enough to kill them, what else might have destroyed megafauna? One theory has been climate change — perhaps there was a relatively hot, dry period between kyr.

    Research suggests otherwise. Indeed, at 40 kyr, the climate was moderate, and Lake Eyre, in central Australia, grew. If there was desertification, scientists would expect megafauna to have moved towards the coast, looking for food and water, but instead, the fossil record details an equal distribution of the dead inland and on the coast. In addition, changes in specific vegetation occurred after the extinction of the megafauna.

    Trees that relied on large animals to eat their fruit and disperse their seed covered far smaller areas of Australia post 40 kyr. These plants were not threatened by climate change; rather, they died off because their megafaunal partners had already gone. Typically, climate change affects almost all species in an area. Yet, around 46 kyr, only the megafauna died. Previously, there had been many species of kangaroo, some as heavy as kg lb , but, after, the heaviest weighed only 32 kg 70 lb.

    This phenomenon is known as dwarfing, and it occurred with many animals in the Pleistocene. Dwarfing has been studied extensively. In , Law published research related to fish farming. Despite excellent food and no predators, farmed fish become smaller as generations continue. This adaptation may be a response to their being commercially useless at a smaller size, meaning they hope to survive the harvest.

    Of the dwarf marsupials, the most notable development over the giants was their longer reproductive lives, which produced more young. They were better runners as well, or, those that were slow-moving retreated to the mountainous forest, beyond the reach of humans. Fire is caused naturally by lightning strikes as well as by humans with torches.

    Surprisingly, the charcoal record for many thousands of years does not show a marked increase in fire after human habitation of Australia — there is only a slow increase over time. Besides, it could be argued that forest fires aid megafauna since grass, their favoured food, invariably replaces burnt vegetation. Johnson, an archaeologist, has proposed that the Aborigines could have wiped out all 55 megafaunal species in just a few thousand years.

    He believes that the 45 kyr human settlement date will be pushed back to make this extinction fit, and he also maintains that years are enough to make one species extinct without large-scale hunting or sophisticated weapons. Johnson used computer modelling on a population of only animals to demonstrate this.

    If just 30 animals are killed a year, then the species becomes extinct after years. Human populations in Australia were small at 45 kyr — only people occupied the same square kilometres as animals. However, at a rate of killing just two animals a year by each group of ten people, extinction is highly likely. A large number of animals do not need to be killed to effect extinction especially if an animal breeds late and infrequently like the albatross and like megafauna.

    Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-G, below. Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes on your answer sheet.

    IELTS Topics: Space

    Seals have only gone part way back. They show us what the intermediates might have been like, on the way to extreme cases such as whales and dugongs. Whales including the small whales we call dolphins and dugongs, with their close cousins the manatees, ceased to be land creatures altogether and reverted to the full marine habits of their remote ancestors.

    They do, however, still breathe air, having never developed anything equivalent to the gills of their earlier marine incarnation. Turtles went back to the sea a very long time ago and, like all vertebrate returnees to the water, they breathe air. However, they are, in one respect, less fully given back to the water than whales or dugongs, for turtles still lay their eggs on beaches.

    There is evidence that all modem turtles are descended from a terrestrial ancestor which lived before most of the dinosaurs. There are two key fossils called Proganochelys quenstedti and Palaeochersis talampayensis dating from early dinosaur times, which appear to be close to the ancestry of all modem turtles and tortoises.

    You might wonder how we can tell whether fossil animals lived on land or in water, especially if only fragments are found. Ichthyosaurs were reptilian contemporaries of the dinosaurs, with fins and streamlined bodies. The fossils look like dolphins and they surely lived like dolphins, in the water.

    Is There Anybody Out There Reading Answers

    With turtles it is a little less obvious. One way to tell is by measuring the bones of their forelimbs. Walter Joyce and Jacques Gauthier, at Yale University, obtained three measurements in these particular bones of 71 species of living turtles and tortoises. They used a kind of triangular graph paper to plot the three measurements against one another. All the land tortoise species formed a tight cluster of points in the upper part of the triangle; all the water turtles cluster in the lower part of the triangular graph.

    There was no overlap, except when they added some species that spend time both in water and on land. The next step was to determine where the fossils fell. The bones of P. Their points on the graph are right in the thick of the dry cluster.

    Онлайн-тест IELTS Reading с ответами (Academic)

    Both these fossils were dry-land tortoises. They come from the era before our turtles returned to the water. You might think, therefore, that modem land tortoises have probably stayed on land ever since those early terrestrial times, as most mammals did after a few of them went back to the sea. But apparently not. If you draw out the family tree of all modem turtles and tortoises, nearly all the branches are aquatic. This suggests that modem land tortoises have not stayed on land continuously since the time of P.

    Everybody agrees that we should not reply immediately.

    IELTS Reading Practice Test 68 with Answers

    Billion Years The life expectancy of Earth is given in paragraph A — since the lifetime validity of life or expectancy of life of a planet like ours our planet is Earth is several billion years. Hence, the answer is several billion years. In this sense, SETI is another cog in the machinery of pure science which is continually pushing out the horizon of our knowledge.

    The project has two parts. So, these powerful telescopes are used to search the nearest likely stars with a high sensibility for signals in the frequency range to MHz.

    If the Aborigines were not technologically advanced enough to kill them, what else might have destroyed megafauna? One theory has been climate change — perhaps there was a relatively hot, dry period between kyr. Research suggests otherwise. Indeed, at 40 kyr, the climate was moderate, and Lake Eyre, in central Australia, grew.

    If there was desertification, scientists would expect megafauna to have moved towards the coast, looking for food and water, but instead, the fossil record details an equal distribution of the dead inland and on the coast.

    In addition, changes in specific vegetation occurred after the extinction of the megafauna. Trees that relied on large animals to eat their fruit and disperse their seed covered far smaller areas of Australia post 40 kyr.

    These plants were not threatened by climate change; rather, they died off because their megafaunal partners had already gone. Typically, climate change affects almost all species in an area.

    Yet, around 46 kyr, only the megafauna died. Previously, there had been many species of kangaroo, some as heavy as kg lbbut, after, the heaviest weighed only 32 kg 70 lb. This phenomenon is known as dwarfing, and it occurred with many animals in the Pleistocene.

    Dwarfing has been studied extensively. InLaw published research related to fish farming. Despite excellent food and no predators, farmed fish become smaller as generations continue. This adaptation may be a response to their being commercially useless at a smaller size, meaning they hope to survive the harvest.

    Of the dwarf marsupials, the most notable development over the giants was their longer reproductive lives, which produced more young. They were better runners as well, or, those that were slow-moving retreated to the mountainous forest, beyond the reach of humans.

    Fire is caused naturally by lightning strikes as well as by humans with torches. Surprisingly, the charcoal record for many thousands of years does not show a marked increase in fire after human habitation of Australia — there is only a slow increase over time.


    The search for life in outer space ielts reading answers