Praxis 7811 study guide


  • Praxis Elementary Education: Content Knowledge for Teaching
  • PRAXIS PRACTICE TEST REVIEW
  • Praxis II Scores: What You Need to Know
  • The Ultimate Guide to the Praxis® Tests
  • Is the Praxis Test Very Hard?
  • Praxis Elementary Education: Content Knowledge for Teaching

    Reading: Foundational Skills This section tests your knowledge on phonics, phonological awareness, and the role of phonics and fluency in reading development. Open versus Closed Syllables An open syllable is a syllable that ends with a vowel. A closed syllable ends in a consonant. An open syllable will create a long vowel sound, while a closed syllable will have a short vowel sound.

    Words can have both closed and open syllables in them. Onsets and Rimes An onset is the first sound in a word or syllable, created by a consonant or consonant pair.

    A rime is the vowel and consonant sounds that come after the onset. Students need practice blending onsets and rimes and separating words into onsets and rimes in order to develop their phonemic awareness.

    Fluency is a very important skill for students to develop because it is directly related to reading comprehension. Students who cannot read fluently will have a difficult time understanding what they read.

    Fluency is something that develops and improves with time, practice, and with modeling from the teacher. There are three components to reading fluently: accuracy, rate, and prosody.

    Accuracy is being able to read words correctly. Rate means reading at an appropriate speed. All three components are important for a child to become a fluent reader and improve their reading comprehension.

    High-Frequency Sight Words High-frequency words, or sight words, are words that show up frequently in language. They are used very frequently in books and when students are writing. It is very important that students learn these words with automaticity, meaning they know them as soon as they see them instead of taking the time to sound them out.

    Sight words show up so often in books that if a child does not know them quickly, it will affect their reading comprehension and fluency. There are various lists used for high-frequency words, although the most popular are the Dolch list and the Fry list. These lists are separated into sets of and taught to students in different grade levels.

    For example, students may learn the first sight words in kindergarten and the second in first grade. Some examples of sight words include: the, of, and, is, in, you usually taught in kindergarten over, new, name, man, small usually taught in first grade Reading: Literature and Informational Text This section tests your knowledge on story elements, reading strategies used for comprehension, text features, and how to evaluate text complexity.

    Here are some concepts that will be on the test. Text Organization Text organization, or text structure, is the way in which information is presented and organized in a book or reading passage. Information can be organized in various ways including: chronological order cause and effect problem and solution Text that is organized in chronological order will present information in a sequence.

    It will have a beginning, middle, and end to the story. Narratives and fiction stories are generally organized in this way. Text that is organized by cause and effect will discuss something that happened and an event or consequence that happened because of this.

    An example of this would be a passage that talks about how animals are losing their habitats due to forests being cut down. Text that is organized by problem and solution will have a problem that needs to be fixed and a solution, or way that the problem gets resolved. This can be easily confused with cause and effect. To use a similar example as the one above, text that is organized by problem and solution might discuss forests being cut down and then present possible solutions to this, such as designating land that cannot be disturbed.

    Text organization can be identified by examining the way information is presented. Students can benefit from having graphic organizers available to think about how information was organized. You can encourage students in higher grade levels to take notes as they read and to mark important text features or story elements that can help them determine text structure.

    Making Inferences Making inferences means combining information you have read with knowledge you already have to draw a conclusion about something. An inference is different from a prediction because a prediction is thinking about what will happen next.

    It is important that students are taught how to make inferences so that they can understand what they are reading, even when something is not directly stated or explained.

    They had cake and ice cream and his friend opened presents. Text Complexity Text complexity is a way to determine how difficult or challenging a text will be for a student in a certain grade level. Text complexity is determined by three factors: qualitative measures of the text quantitative measures of the text factors related to the reader and the text Qualitative measures are aspects that need to be considered about a text that cannot be measured in a concrete or quantitative way.

    This includes things such as inferences that a student would need to be able to make, necessary background knowledge, and the amount of support provided to the reader through pictures or definitions. A teacher who is looking at the qualitative measures of a text might consider figurative language or a lack of pictures used in a text.

    For example, a book about the rainforest might include short and easy to decode words, but if the book does not have many pictures or uses a style of writing that the child is not used to, they will have a hard time comprehending what they have read.

    Quantitative measures refers to aspects of the text that can be quantified, such as number of words, sentence length, or syllable length of words. Quantitative measures usually indicate a reading level, either by grade level or by another numerical designation. Factors related to the reader and text refers to things such as student motivation and interests, as well as the complexity of questions that will be asked about the text.

    For example, a student who is interested in the rainforest will likely have an easier time reading a book about the rainforest than a student on the same reading level who has no interest in this topic. Writing This section tests your knowledge on common types of writing and their uses, developmental stages of writing that children go through, and the research process. Take a look at these concepts. Common Types of Writing The common types of writing include expository, persuasive, narrative, and descriptive writing.

    Each type of writing is used for a different purpose and uses different formats and writing techniques to reach the intended audience. Expository writing is used to inform or teach the reader about a specific topic. Expository writing uses facts and research, rather than descriptive detail. Persuasive writing is used to convince the reader to believe or do something.

    An example of persuasive writing might be an opinion article in a newspaper or an advertisement. Narrative writing is writing that tells a story.

    It is one of the first types of writing that students learn to use. Narratives are written in sequential order and typically have a beginning, middle, and end. An example of narrative writing would be a student writing about their trip to the zoo and explaining what they did in sequential order.

    Descriptive writing uses figures of speech and sensory language to give detail about an event, person, place, or thing. Students should be encouraged to use their five senses and descriptive words to help the reader create a mental image when they read.

    Poetry is a good example of descriptive writing. Developmental Stages of Writing The developmental stages of writing vary slightly in the name of each stage but typically identify similar milestones. For example, you might decide to research the habitat of penguins.

    Searching for resources: You will use various methods to search for resources that will help you learn more about your topic. This can include an internet search, locating books in the library, or finding videos about your topic. Gathering the materials needed to find information on your topic: This step goes hand in hand with the previous step. After you have searched for sources, you will gather these sources so that you can use them for research.

    Evaluating your sources: After you have gathered several sources, you will need to evaluate which sources are credible and most helpful for your research. For example, a website created by an unknown author will be less credible than a webpage from National Geographic. Compiling the information you have gathered: At this stage, you will gather your most helpful and reliable information to look through and find important information.

    Communicating the information gathered to your audience: This can take the form of a paper written about your topic, a web page, or a poster.

    It is important to understand your intended audience when you are doing this. Citing your sources: This shows where you obtained your information from. Depending on the purpose of the research project and the grade level of the students doing the research, citations may take on a slightly different format.

    Language This section tests your knowledge on grammar, vocabulary, parts of speech, and the use of figurative language. Parts of Speech The different parts of speech include: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions.

    Each part of speech is described below. Noun — A noun is a person, place, thing, or idea. A noun is a crucial part of a sentence because it tells who or what the sentence is about. A noun can be a common noun a general word for something or a proper noun a specific name for something.

    Proper nouns begin with a capital letter. Examples of nouns include: boy, house, Jane, dog, pencil, Walmart. Pronoun — A pronoun takes the place of a noun to avoid repetitive sentences. Examples of pronouns include: I, he, they, her, it, them. Adjective — An adjective is a describing word. It is used to describe a noun or pronoun. Adjectives are helpful when a student is adding more detail and description to their writing. Examples of adjectives include: happy, large, beautiful, quiet, bumpy.

    Verbs tell what the subject is doing or did. Examples of verbs include: jumped, run, draw, played. Adverbs — Adverbs give more detail about a verb or adjective. Adverbs often tell how the subject did something. Adverbs often end in -ly, but they do not have to. Examples of adverbs include: loudly, very, happily. Prepositions — Prepositions are words that tell where or when something happens in relation to something else. Other prepositions include: beside, under, after.

    PRAXIS PRACTICE TEST REVIEW

    Have no fear, gentle readers. Here are some answers to frequently asked questions about Praxis II scores. There are a total of questions on Praxis II Both unofficial and official Praxis II scores are scaled in this point range. Your official score will be issued anywhere from days to weeks after you take the Praxis II.

    However, sometimes official scores can be changed. When this happens, the adjustment seldom exceeds 3 points. Example: Continuing with my example from Praxis , an unofficial score of on the Praxis II for Social Studies would likely translate into an official score of as well. If any adjustments are made, however, a unofficial score would likely translate into an official score of between and Wait, how do you convert a raw Praxis II score into an unofficial score?

    Here at Magoosh Praxis, we get student questions about raw-to-scaled score conversion all the time. Ready to have your mind blown? Step 2: Add to your percentage number to get your scaled unofficial score.

    How are adjustments to official Praxis II scores calculated? There are two different reasons your official Praxis II score might be adjusted from your unofficial one. First, a small handful of Praxis II exams have scores that are adjusted for relative difficulty.

    What does this mean? Well, every test-taker gets a different mix of questions; there are no two identical versions of the same Praxis II exam. If your questions were unusually hard, you may get a few points added to your score, to compensate for this.

    And if your questions were unusually easy, your score could be adjusted downward a little bit. But again, downward adjustments are rare. Your official score will also be adjusted if certain questions are worth more than just one point.

    Usually, Praxis II questions all have the same point value. However, you will occasionally see Praxis II questions that are weighted more heavily. Sometimes questions are worth extra points because you need to select more than one answer. At other times, questions are given extra value for less obvious reasons. For instance, a multiple choice question may test your knowledge in two or three important principles instead of just one.

    Will I always get to see my raw and unofficial Praxis II scores on test day? If the computers in the exam center are slow or glitchy on the day you take the test, you might only see your raw Praxis II score or only your official Praxis II score.

    Constructed-response scoring is done by actual human scorers after your test day. More from Magoosh:.

    Praxis II Scores: What You Need to Know

    The Ultimate Guide to the Praxis® Tests

    If your questions were unusually hard, you may get a few points added to your score, to compensate for this. And if your questions were unusually easy, your score could be adjusted downward a little bit. But again, downward adjustments are rare. Your official score will also be adjusted if certain questions are worth more than just one point. Usually, Praxis II questions all have the same point value.

    However, you will occasionally see Praxis II questions that are weighted more heavily. Sometimes questions are worth extra points because you need to select more than one answer. At other times, questions are given extra value for less obvious reasons. For instance, a multiple choice question may test your knowledge in two or three important principles instead of just one.

    Will I always get to see my raw and unofficial Praxis II scores on test day? For example, a website created by an unknown author will be less credible than a webpage from National Geographic. Compiling the information you have gathered: At this stage, you will gather your most helpful and reliable information to look through and find important information.

    Communicating the information gathered to your audience: This can take the form of a paper written about your topic, a web page, or a poster.

    It is important to understand your intended audience when you are doing this. Citing your sources: This shows where you obtained your information from. Depending on the purpose of the research project and the grade level of the students doing the research, citations may take on a slightly different format.

    Language This section tests your knowledge on grammar, vocabulary, parts of speech, and the use of figurative language. Parts of Speech The different parts of speech include: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions. Each part of speech is described below. Noun — A noun is a person, place, thing, or idea.

    A noun is a crucial part of a sentence because it tells who or what the sentence is about. A noun can be a common noun a general word for something or a proper noun a specific name for something. Proper nouns begin with a capital letter. Examples of nouns include: boy, house, Jane, dog, pencil, Walmart. Pronoun — A pronoun takes the place of a noun to avoid repetitive sentences. Examples of pronouns include: I, he, they, her, it, them.

    Adjective — An adjective is a describing word. It is used to describe a noun or pronoun. Adjectives are helpful when a student is adding more detail and description to their writing.

    Is the Praxis Test Very Hard?

    Examples of adjectives include: happy, large, beautiful, quiet, bumpy. Verbs tell what the subject is doing or did. Examples of verbs include: jumped, run, draw, played. Adverbs — Adverbs give more detail about a verb or adjective. Adverbs often tell how the subject did something. Adverbs often end in -ly, but they do not have to. Examples of adverbs include: loudly, very, happily. Prepositions — Prepositions are words that tell where or when something happens in relation to something else.

    Other prepositions include: beside, under, after. Conjunctions — Conjunctions are words that are used to connect parts of a sentence or connect two sentences together. Other conjunctions include: but, or, yet, so. Figurative Language Figurative language is when words are used in a way that is different from their normal definition or use. Figurative language is used to make writing more interesting and descriptive. It includes similes, metaphors, onomatopoeia, hyperboles, and idioms.

    Examples of onomatopoeia include: buzz, bark, plop. A hyperbole is an extreme exaggeration. Idioms can be difficult for English language learners or for students who have not been exposed to idioms in everyday conversation. Tier I words are words that are used in everyday language and conversation. These words generally do not need to be explicitly taught to students, because most children will already know the meaning of these words.

    Examples of Tier I words are: girl, book, play. Tier II words are words seen frequently in text but are not used as often in everyday conversation.

    These words usually need to be taught to students, but after learning the meaning, they will be able to apply it to multiple texts or concepts. Examples of Tier II words are: analyze, evidence, infer. There are a total of selected-response questions divided between the four subtests. Praxis exams are required for licensure in 40 states and US territories. You can register for the test online, by mail, or by phone. Timing Each subtest is delivered and timed individually. However, you take all subtests in one appointment block of two hours and 30 minutes.

    Register for the exam through the ETS website portal. You can take the exam at an authorized testing center or from the comfort of your home. There are equipment requirements for home testing, including a steady high-speed internet connection, a quiet place to take the exam, and a web camera. Exams taken at testing centers are offered year-round at centers located nationwide, and at-home testing is available seven days a week from 10 a.

    Eastern to 1 p.


    Praxis 7811 study guide