BEST IELTS Academic Reading Test 73
Paragraph G Questions Complete the sentences below. A team of researchers begins to investigate, collecting skin samples for instance, recording anything that could help them answer the crucial question: why? Theories abound, some more convincing than others. In recent years, navy sonar has been accused of causing certain whales to strand.
It is known that noise pollution from offshore industry, shipping and sonar can impair underwater communication, but can it really drive whales onto our beaches?
NATO later admitted it had been testing new sonar technology in the same area at the time as the strandings had occurred. For humans, hearing a sudden loud noise might prove frightening, but it does not induce mass fatality. For whales, on the other hand, there is a theory on how sonar can kill.
The noise can surprise the animal, causing it to swim too quickly to the surface. The result is decompression sickness, a hazard human divers know all too well. If a diver ascends too quickly from a high-pressure underwater environment to a lower-pressure one, gases dissolved in blood and tissue expand and form bubbles.
The bubbles block the flow of blood to vital organs, and can ultimately lead to death. Plausible as this seems, it is still a theory and based on our more comprehensive knowledge of land-based animals. For this reason, some scientists are wary. Whale expert Karen Evans is one such scientist. Another is Rosemary Gales, a leading expert on whale strandings. She says sonar technology cannot always be blamed for mass strandings.
Whales have been stranding for a very long time — pre-sonar. When animals beach next to each other at the same time, the most common cause has nothing to do with humans at all.
If one of the group strands and sounds the alarm, others will try to swim to its aid, and become stuck themselves. With this in mind, Ralph James, physicist at the University of Western Australia in Perth, thinks he may have discovered why whales turn up only on some beaches.
In he went to Augusta, Western Australia, where more than false killer whales had beached. So I asked myself, what is it about this beach? Data has since revealed that all mass strandings around Australia occur on gently sloping sandy beaches, some with inclines of less than 0. For whale species that depend on an echolocation system to navigate, this kind of beach spells disaster. Usually, as they swim, they make clicking noises, and the resulting sound waves are reflected in an echo and travel back to them.
But that is not all. Physics, it appears, can help with the when as well as the where. The ocean is full of bubbles. Larger ones rise quickly to the surface and disappear, whilst smaller ones — called microbubbles — can last for days.
So, during and after a storm, echolocating whales are essentially swimming blind. Last year was a bad one for strandings in Australia. Can we predict if this — or any other year — will be any better? Some scientists believe we can. But others are sceptical. In the same year, she co-authored a study on Australian strandings that uncovered a completely different trend. The whales follow. So what causes mass strandings? And he is probably right.
But the point is we now know what many of those components are. What do researchers often take from the bodies of whales? What do some industries and shipping create that is harmful to whales? In which geographical region do most whale strandings in Australia happen? Which kind of whale was the subject of a study in the North Sea? Questions Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?
The aim of the research by the Pelagos Institute in was to prove that navy sonar was responsible for whale strandings. The whales stranded in Greece were found at different points along the coast. Rosemary Gales has questioned the research techniques used by the Greek scientists.
According to Gales, whales are likely to try to help another whale in trouble. Science in Space A premier, world-class laboratory in low Earth orbit. The most complex engineering project ever attempted has created an enormous set of interlinked modules that orbits the planet at more than 27, kilometres per hour. It might be travelling fast but, say critics, as a lab it is going nowhere.
So where should its future priorities lie? This question was addressed at the recent 1st annual ISS research and development conference in Colorado. Among the presenters was Satoshi Iwase of Aichi Medical University in Japan who has spent several years developing an experiment that could help solve one of the key problems that humans will face in space: keeping our bodies healthy in weightlessness. One thing that physiologists have learned is that without gravity our bodies begin to lose strength, leaving astronauts with weakened bones, muscles and cardiovascular systems.
To counter these effects on a long-duration mission to, say, Mars, astronauts will almost certainly need to create their own artificial gravity. This is where Iwase comes in. He leads a team designing a centrifuge for humans. In their preliminary design, an astronaut is strapped into the seat of a machine that resembles an exercise bike. There are certainly plenty of ideas for other experiments: but many projects have yet to fly.
Besides suggesting that the agency reduces the time between approving experiments and sending them into space, it also recommended setting clearer research priorities. NASA has already begun to take action, hiring management consultants ProOrbis to develop a plan to cut through the bureaucracy. The Hubble Space Telescope, meanwhile, has produced more than I 1, papers in just over 20 years, yet it cost less than one-tenth of the price of the space station.
He points to progress made on a salmonella vaccine, for example. From this, it has opted to focus on life science and medical research, and recently called for proposals for experiments on muscle wasting, osteoporosis and the immune system. The organisation also maintains that the ISS should be used to develop products with commercial application and to test those that are either close to or already on the market.
Investment from outside organisations is vital, says Uhran, and a balance between academic and commercial research will help attract this. The station needs to attract cutting-edge research, yet many scientists seem to have little idea what goes on aboard it. Jeanne DiFrancesco at ProOrbis conducted more than interviews with people from organisations with potential interests in low gravity studies.
Soon everyone will be dreaming of interplanetary travel again, he predicts. More importantly, scientists are already queuing for seats on these low-gravity space-flight services so they can collect data during a few minutes of weightlessness. This demand for low-cost space flight could eventually lead to a service running on a more frequent basis, giving researchers the chance to test their ideas before submitting a proposal for experiments on the ISS.
Getting flight experience should help them win a slot on the station, says Stern. What does the writer state about the ISS in the first paragraph? A Its manufacture has remained within the proposed budget.
B It is a great example of technological achievement. C There are doubts about the speed it has attained. D NASA should have described its purpose more accurately. A It is based on conventional exercise equipment. C It is designed only to work in low-gravity environments.
D It has benefits that Iwase did not anticipate. The writer refers to the Hubble Space Telescope in order to A show why investment in space technology has decreased. B highlight the need to promote the ISS in a positive way.
C explain which kind of projects are more likely to receive funding. D justify the time required for a space project to produce results. B expressed concern about testing products used for profit. C questioned the benefits of some of the projects currently on the ISS.
D invited researchers to suggest certain health-based projects. Questions Look at the following opinions Questions and the list of people below. Match each opinion with the correct person, A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter, A, B, C or D, in boxes on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter more than once. The ISS should be available for business-related ventures. There is general ignorance about what kinds of projects are possible on the ISS.
The process of getting accepted projects onto the ISS should be speeded up. Some achievements of the ISS are underrated. To properly assess new space technology, there has to be an absence of gravity.
( Update 2021) CAMBRIDGE IELTS 5 READING TEST 3 ANSWERS – Free Lesson
Is humanity running out of space or will we find new frontiers? Over years have passed since this theoretical milestone but mankind, admittedly somewhat more cramped, is still expanding and will continue to do so.
Urbanization is now a more evident worldwide phenomenon than previously as even greater numbers of people drift from rural areas to vast cities all over the world like Tokyo, Mexico City and Mumbai These mega-cities, i. Now teeming with humanity, they are hungry for one increasingly valuable resource: land. Not only is more land required for accommodation, but also for a wide range of infrastructure facilities. Transport systems including roads within and between cities need to be constructed or upgraded to create motorways; green fields are turned into airports; the virgin forest is stripped to provide food and firewood.
In poorer regions, this newly exposed land becomes desert completing the cycle of destruction. Section C Hitherto, the most common practice for the utilization of expensive space for living and working has been to build upwards; hence, the demand for ever higher buildings, both apartment and commercial, in major cities like New York, Shanghai and Singapore all vying with each other for the tallest buildings. There has also been a tradition for building underground, not just for transport systems, but for the storage of waste, depositories for books etc.
In the past, in many countries, Holland and the UK included, marshes and floodplains have been reclaimed from the sea. Like the city of Venice in Italy, housing complexes and even airports have now been constructed off-shore to amazing effect.
In Japan, Kansai International Airport has been built off-shore on a man-made island at vast expense and in Dubai, a very imaginative and expensive housing complex in the shape of a palm tree is being built just off the coast on land created by a construction company. However, these and other developments are at risk from rising sea levels as a consequence of global warming. Section D But where will the human race go when planet earth is full? There have been many theories put forward about the human population moving to outer space.
Marshall Savage , , for example, has projected that the human population will reach five quintillions throughout the solar system by the year , with the majority living in the asteroid belt.
Feeman Dyson favors the Kuiper belt as the future home of humanity, suggesting this could happen within a few centuries. Section E Habitation in outer space in huge stations is no longer just a dream, but a reality.
A permanent international space station now orbits the earth. The first commercial tourist recently went into outer space with more trips planned for the near future. This is only the beginning, but the development of space hotels is not far-off. There is no knowing where mankind may end up. But the ideas about off-world habitation are not fanciful and I am sure I am not alone in fantasizing about summer holidays spent watching the moons rising in some far-flung planet or on a floating hotel somewhere on the Andromeda nebula.
Choose the correct heading for sections B-E from the list of headings below. List of Headings i. How the problem of land scarcity has been overcome in the past ii. Various predictions about future solutions to a lack of space iii. The effects of population growth on land availability iv. The importance of the new British Library v. An expanding population vi. A description of a mega-city vii. A firm belief that human habitation of outer space will occur viii. The importance of having an international space station Example Answer.
IELTS Reading Practice Test 68 with Answers
One theory has been climate change — perhaps there was a relatively hot, dry period between kyr. Research suggests otherwise. Indeed, at 40 kyr, the climate was moderate, and Lake Eyre, in central Australia, grew. If there was desertification, scientists would expect megafauna to have moved towards the coast, looking for food and water, but instead, the fossil record details an equal distribution of the dead inland and on the coast.
In addition, changes in specific vegetation occurred after the extinction of the megafauna. Trees that relied on large animals to eat their fruit and disperse their seed covered far smaller areas of Australia post 40 kyr. These plants were not threatened by climate change; rather, they died off because their megafaunal partners had already gone. Typically, climate change affects almost all species in an area. Yet, around 46 kyr, only the megafauna died. Previously, there had been many species of kangaroo, some as heavy as kg lbbut, after, the heaviest weighed only 32 kg 70 lb.
This phenomenon is known as dwarfing, and it occurred with many animals in the Pleistocene. Dwarfing has been studied extensively. InLaw published research related to fish farming.
IELTSData Reading Passage 68 – Space Travel and Health.
Despite excellent food and no predators, farmed fish become smaller as generations continue. This adaptation may be a response to their being commercially useless at a smaller size, meaning they hope to survive the harvest. Of the dwarf marsupials, the most notable development over the giants was their longer reproductive lives, which produced more young.
They were better runners as well, or, those that were slow-moving retreated to the mountainous forest, beyond the reach of humans. Fire is caused naturally by lightning strikes as well as by humans with torches. Surprisingly, the charcoal record for many thousands of years does not show a marked increase in fire after human habitation of Australia — there is only a slow increase over time.
Been There; Done That – In Zero Gravity – IELTS Reading Answers
Besides, it could be argued that forest fires aid megafauna since grass, their favoured food, invariably replaces burnt vegetation. AII in the name of science, of course. Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B-E and G from the list of headings below.
Write the correct member i-x in boxes 1—5 on your answer sheet.
Passage 1 | Making Time for Science
List of Headings i. The problem of dealing with emergencies in space ii. How space biomedicine can help patients on Earth iii. Why accidents are so common in outer space iv. What is space biomedicine? The psychological problems of astronauts vi. Conducting space biomedical research on Earth vii. The internal damage caused to the human body by space travel viii.
How space biomedicine First began ix. The visible effects of space travel on the human body x. Like the city of Venice in Italy, housing complexes and even airports have now been constructed off-shore to amazing effect. In Japan, Kansai International Airport has been built off-shore on a man-made island at vast expense and in Dubai, a very imaginative and expensive housing complex in the shape of a palm tree is being built just off the coast on land created by a construction company.
However, these and other developments are at risk from rising sea levels as a consequence of global warming. Section D But where will the human race go when planet earth is full?
There have been many theories put forward about the human population moving to outer space. Marshall Savage, for example, has projected that the human population will reach five quintillions throughout the solar system by the yearwith the majority living in the asteroid belt.
Feeman Dyson favors the Kuiper belt as the future home of humanity, suggesting this could happen within a few centuries. Section E Habitation in outer space in huge stations is no longer just a dream, but a reality. A permanent international space station now orbits the earth. The first commercial tourist recently went into outer space with more trips planned for the near future.
This is only the beginning, but the development of space hotels is not far-off.