Do horses mate with their offspring

  • How Do Horses Mate? Love Is in the Air
  • What is a Horse Breed?
  • Does Dam or Sire Age Affect Offspring Gender?
  • Breeding Older Mares
  • The mixed-up world of hybrid animals
  • What do the terms inbreeding and linebreeding mean?
  • How Do Horses Mate? Love Is in the Air

    Conclusion Understanding Horse Reproduction As with many animals, horses begin to start the mating process in the spring months. This happens is for a couple of reasons. In the spring, the temperatures are warmer and there is more natural sunlight exposure. When these are combined, horses will begin to experience an increase in sex hormone production. At the same time stallions experience increased sex hormones, mares do too. Mares who are in heat will have a swollen vulva and will often experience increased mucus secretions.

    These two signs encourage stallions to begin their sexual activity peak. When females are in heat, they begin to release pheromones in their urine. Male horses can smell these pheromones, which will excite them and encourage them to mate with the females. Horse Breeding Season Horse breeding season lasts from early spring into late summer.

    Sometimes, depending on the weather, the breeding season can extend into fall. It is important horse owners understand what to expect during the breeding season, so they can protect their males with the things like ice boots after mating. Understanding the Mechanics of Horse Reproduction Male and female horses can become sexually active as soon as they reach the age of puberty. Females typically do not enter puberty as soon as males. A male horse may enter puberty as soon as they become fourteen months of age.

    Females wait a little longer to blossom, entering puberty around months of age. Mares do not ovulate until the seasons change and there is more light and heat. Mares typically go into estrus every twenty-one days during the warmer months of the year. Their bleeding will last up to five to seven days, and they are only fertile during the last twenty-four to forty-eight hours of their cycle.

    Unlike females, male horses remain in heat constantly. They will be ready to mate at any given time, as long as a mare is fertile and welcoming. A mare cannot give birth until the age of four. Once a mare reaches this age, she can safely carry offspring to birth. If you plan on breeding horses, you will have to wait until the mare is of age.

    How Do Horses Mate? Courtship is the very first step involved in horse mating. When the male is attempting to court the female, he will begin to emit a specific neigh that is only released in this period. He will also arch his neck and attempt to appear as muscular and powerful as possible. Finally, the male will perform a circle dance before the female, signaling to her that he is ready to mate. If the female seems receptive to his advances, he will nuzzle her neck and mane.

    If the female is ready, she will lift her tail, allowing the male to mount her, so they can mate. What About Horse Gestation? Once mating has taken place, the waiting game begins. The gestation period of average mares is around eleven months. During her pregnancy, the mare will require complete nutrition. The right diet is key for ensuring the foal will develop healthy.

    The mare should remain active to ensure she keeps a balanced weight and does not begin to lose muscle mass during her pregnancy. Conclusion Now, you should have the answer to your question regarding how horses mate.

    It is a beautiful and natural process and happens the same in the wild as it does in captivity. The end result of mating is often a beautiful foal that takes on the genetics of both parents.

    When done correctly, mating can happen frequently until pregnancy occurs in the spring and summer months. Make sure your mare receives veterinary care during gestation for the healthiest pregnancy. About The Author.

    What is a Horse Breed?

    I have recently acquired two pony mules minis and am curious to acquire more and possibly start breeding mini mules. It had mentioned that some mares breeds conceive more easily than others. What is your extent of experience with mule husbandry?

    I am looking at several pony stallions and jacks and not sure which way I should cross. Should I want the female somewhat bigger in stature than the male in either case to birth the baby easily? Is a pony stallion or jack more manageable one or the other?

    Also, have you done any research on fertility of mollies? Thank you very much for any information and guidance you can provide. Answer: There are a lot of factors to consider when breeding for mules. Most female mules are sterile and are not viable breeding prospects, though there have been 3 clearly documented cases in history where molly mules have conceived to a jack or stallion, and delivered at the month term.

    The mule cross between a male donkeys and female horse are typically the way to go since they seem to inherit the best characteristics from each parent.

    The mule foal is generally smaller than a horse foal would be, so birthing is easier for the mare. The reverse cross, or hinny, does not always inherit the best characteristics from their parents. Often the stallion is larger than the jennet and large foals can be a problem at birth for a jennet.

    Another consideration is that the jack or stallion has to want to do this. Jacks and stallions need to be trained to breed outside of their species. The most important consideration is conformation and the traits you will be passing on to the offspring.

    People should not be coaxed into breeding inferior animals, or animals with hidden genetic problems for the sake of having babies around or obtaining a cheap animal. Breeding for Mini Mules Question: I was looking in mules and more, found your column would like some information on breeding mini mules, we have 5 mares and 1 jack but none of them are bred.

    The jack has been running with the mares since the end of February. He will mount them but is not dropped. All the mares have had babies with in the last 3 years; any info you can give would be appreciated. Though jacks are usually aggressive in their behaviors towards jennets, this is not the case with mares.

    When cross-breeding species, the behaviors of a lot of mares can intimidate the jack. If your jack is turned out with more than one mare in the beginning, he may find it too overwhelming.

    It is advisable to begin breeding jacks to mares by allowing him to be with one mare for the first and second year after weaning. Choose a mare with a calm and accepting attitude toward the jack. The companionship he develops with this mare will give him confidence and will set the stage for breeding more mares in the future. In his third year, the jack should be housed alone and be taught to breed in hand DVD 9.

    Breeding Jacks — A. However, I still have a few questions… I want to get a Jack for breeding to mares, but If I get one that has been raised with donkeys… will he have any interest in mares? Can I train him to breed mares? Or collect on a dummy? I would prefer to teach him to collect on a dummy, and AI my mares.

    Should I get a young male 2 yrs old and teach him to breed my way, or is that possible? Do you know anyone that has taught a Jack to mount a dummy? Is their fertility similar to stallions? Answer: It is difficult to teach a jack to breed mares, and they should not be allowed to breed jennets until they have successfully bred mares for several years. A young jack who is to breed mares should be pastured with a calm and accepting mare during his second year.

    He may or may not conceive this early, but the real task is to build his confidence for this purpose. Jacks can be very timid with mares, so a regimented training process is necessary to keep him from being discouraged. It is more difficult to alter the behaviors of the older jack and if they have already bred jennets, it is not impossible, but highly unlikely that they will breed mares.

    Jacks can be collected from a dummy, but that also depends on the personality and experience of the jack. Breeding Stallion to Jennet Question: I asked you a question a few weeks ago, regarding breeding a You recommended against it on grounds that she might not be able to have the foal.

    I wanted to ask a few clarifying questions. Would this crossing result in a hinny closer to the size of the horse or the donkey? I have had the stallion since he was born and he was not much different in size than the two foals the jenny has had for us.

    My horse only weighs about lbs. Answer: This is a case of knowing the possibilities of genetic makeup. Though your stallion was small as a foal, if his sire or grandsire had genes for more size, your stallion could pass this on to his offspring. If the jennet is only The vast difference in size between the stallion and the jennet without the genes of a taller sire or grandsire still allows the stallion to contribute genes that would make the foal larger than the jennet would be able to manage.

    If the foal is too large, the smaller jennet would have problems at birth expelling the foal which could even result in the death of the jennet, foal, or both. Determining Maturation Size of Mule Foal Question: Could you tell us how you can determine the size that a mule foal will get at full height?

    Is there a tried and true method? The jack will determine the thickness of bone in the mule and rarely contributes much to the height. Diet-Fescue Pasture Question: Hi! I am a first time horse owner. We recently purchased some land and a bred horse. She was already approx 9 months along when I got her. She is now at 11 months and I just found out that there is fescue in the pasture.

    I heard that this is bad for pregnant horses. What type of problem does this cause and what do I need to do? I am feeding her 1 large can dog food size of Omelene one time a day. Also, I want to breed her to a Donkey next time, what do I need to look for in selecting a stud? Thanks for your time! Answer: Documented cases of fescue related toxicity have included: 1 Mares carrying foals past gestation times. Most fescue pastures have varying degrees of this endophyte fungus.

    Mares in foal should have a balanced diet that is carefully monitored. To avoid incidence of colic or founder, it is advisable to take the mare off all grain and feed only grass hay, or timothy, six weeks before foaling to six weeks after foaling. Grain can be reintroduced safely after this in small increments at a time. There are a lot of things to consider before choosing a jack for breeding.

    It would take pages to tell you them all. We have a lot of products available that can help you with this, beginning with DVD 8 , 9 , and our book Donkey Training. General Breeding Info Question: I want to breed my own mule baby. If I want a mule at maturity to be around 52 in. Do I need to make sure the mare is this size? And what about the jack?

    What size does he need to be? Rest assure I will be responsible for this baby as long as I live and the mare will have a permanent home I will pay stud fee for use of the jack. Answer: When breeding for mules, the mare should be selected for the performance type of mule that you wish and for the approximate height of the mule.

    The jack contributes strength, intelligence and thickness of bone. For miniatures, we use miniature jacks and for draft mules, Mammoths are best.

    Gestation Question: I have a burro and I was wondering how long is there pregnancy period? Answer: The gestation for pregnant jennets is 12 months. It is the same for mares with mule foals. Sometimes they can foal a few weeks earlier or later depending on the individual animals. I live in California and I will soon have 2 donkeys. I am going to have a baby donkey if everything goes right with my donkey. I need help with her because I had never dealt with delivering a baby.

    I need your answer soon. She can have the baby any day. Answer: Most jennets will foal quite easily with little assistance. You can watch, but do not interfere unless it seems she is having difficulties. When she does foal, you should make sure they are in a clean and dry bedded stall and keep them there for a couple of days before turning them out. It helps with the bonding of the jennet and foal and allows them to get used to you as well.

    Then you would put iodine on the umbilical cord. Watch the foal and make sure it is able to nurse within the first two hours.

    Does Dam or Sire Age Affect Offspring Gender?

    Breeding Older Mares

    What is linebreeding? Linebreeding is a term commonly used to describe milder forms of inbreeding. Typically it involves arranging matings so that one or more relatives occur more than once in a pedigree, while avoiding close inbreeding. Why should inbreeding be avoided?

    Inbreeding can also result in developmental disruption, higher infant mortality, a shorter life span and reduction of immune system function. The immune system is closely linked to the removal of cancer cells from a healthy body, so reduction of immune system function increases the risk of tumour development. Immune system function is also critical for defense against infectious disease.

    Welfare problems can occur where the immune system is compromised. For horse owners who like small breeds, there is the miniature horse. These small equines range from 20 inches to 36 inches at the withers and can weight as little as 40 pounds. They were once prized by royalty and are now used in many show activities by adults and youth alike.

    Pony Breeds. Equines that are less than Each hand is 4 inches; a horse that is These small equines are used in many of the same activities as light and sports horse breeds. They are ridden or driven by youth and adults in a variety of activities. Light Horse Breeds. The horse breeds classified in this group stand People can unwittingly create opportunities for hybridization, too. They might put two closely related species in the same enclosure at a zoo.

    Or as cities expand, urban species may increasingly encounter rural ones. People may even set loose animals from other countries, accidentally or on purpose, into a new habitat. These exotic species now may encounter and mate with the native animals. Many hybrid animals are sterile.

    The mixed-up world of hybrid animals

    For example, mules are the hybrid offspring of horses and donkeys. Only a horse mating with a donkey can make another mule. Biodiversity is a measure of the number of species. If many hybrids were produced, the two parent species could merge into one. That would reduce the variety of species. But hybridization sometimes can boost biodiversity. A hybrid might be able to eat a certain food that its parent species cannot. Or maybe it can thrive in a different habitat.

    Eventually, it could become its own species, like the golden-crowned manakin. And that would increase — not decrease — the variety of life on Earth. Appearance is just one. Delmore wanted to know how hybrids might behave differently than their parents. Over time, this species has split into subspecies. These are groups of animals from the same species that live in different areas.

    However, when they do encounter each other, they can still breed and produce fertile young. One subspecies is the russet-backed thrush, which lives on the west coast of the United States and Canada. As its name implies, it has reddish feathers. The olive-backed thrush has greenish-brown feathers and lives farther inland. But these subspecies overlap along the Coast Mountains in western North America.

    There, they can mate and produce hybrids. One difference between the two subspecies is their migration behavior. Both groups of birds breed in North America, then fly south in winter. But russet-backed thrushes migrate down the west coast to land in Mexico and Central America. Olive-backed thrushes fly over the central and eastern United States to settle in South America.

    Scientists attached tiny backpacks as seen on this bird to hybrid songbirds called thrushes. Which directions do hybrids get? To investigate, Delmore trapped hybrid birds in western Canada. She placed tiny backpacks on them. A light sensor in each backpack helped record where the birds went. The birds flew south to their wintering grounds, carrying the backpacks on their journey. The next summer, Delmore re-captured some of those birds back in Canada.

    The length of the day and timing of midday differs depending on location. They flew somewhere down the middle. These treks, though, took the birds over rougher terrain, such as deserts and mountains.

    That could be a problem because those environments might offer less food to survive the long journey.

    What do the terms inbreeding and linebreeding mean?

    But that strategy might also cause problems. Normally, birds learn cues on their way south to help them navigate back home.

    They might notice landmarks such as mountains. But if they return by a different path, those landmarks will be absent. One result: The birds migration might take longer to complete.

    These new data might explain why the subspecies have remained separate, Delmore says. Following a different path may mean that hybrid birds tend to be weaker when they reach the mating grounds — or have a lower chance of surviving their yearly journeys. If hybrids survived as well as their parents, DNA from the two subspecies would mix more often. Eventually these subspecies would fuse into one group. Perils of predators Sometimes, hybrids are shaped differently than their parents.

    Do horses mate with their offspring