100 Opposite Words in English
The wound was slow to heal. He was tall and thin, with short brown hair. Fat —— Skinny He looks much fatter than in his photo. Some supermodels are far too skinny. Feeble —— Strong She was too feeble to leave her room. Laura had a strong character. Few —— Many The team that makes the fewest mistakes usually wins.
Many people have to use a car to travel to work. Firm —— Flabby The sofa cushions are fairly firm. It was that of a young man, tall but somewhat flabby muscled.
First —— Last The first time I flew on a plane I was really nervous. Their motorboat struck a rock and began to sink. Floor —— Ceiling We are located on the seventh floor of the building. The house has two rooms with high ceilings. Foolish —— Wise It would be foolish to ignore his advice. I think you were wise to leave when you did. Forget —— Remember What happened that day will never be forgotten.
I remember meeting her at a party once. Forgivable —— Unforgivable It was an easily forgivable mistake. Patrick had deceived her, and that was unforgivable. The report blames poor safety standards for the accident. He has an unfortunate habit of repeating himself. Forward —— Backward He leaned forward, his elbows resting on the table.
She went without a backward glance. Free —— Restricted The animals are allowed to run free in the park. Freeze —— Boil The water pipes have frozen. We were advised to boil the water before drinking it. Fresh —— Stale The beans are fresh from the garden. French bread goes stale very quickly. Cats and dogs have always been natural enemies.
Frown —— Smile She frowned as she read the letter. Mark read the message and smiled to himself. Funny —— Sad Do you remember any funny stories about work?
Dad looked sad and worried as he read the letter. Gentle —— Rough Arthur was a very gentle, caring person. Rugby is a very rough sport. Giant —— Tiny Giant cabbages grew in the garden. You only need to use a tiny amount of salt. All the children will receive a small gift. We want to expand the business, not shrink it.
Guilty —— Innocent I feel really guilty about forgetting her birthday again. Nobody would believe that I was innocent. Harsh —— Mild The Canadian winter is very harsh. We had an exceptionally mild winter last year. He —— She It was he who first suggested the idea. I saw you talking to that girl. Who is she? Heaven —— Hell Antonyms examples: He believed that he and his wife would one day be together again in heaven. She must have gone through hell every day, the way we teased her about her weight.
Here —— There What are you doing here? We could go back to my cottage and have lunch there. Hero —— Coward He had dared to speak out against injustice, and overnight he became a national hero.
High —— Low The camp was surrounded by a high fence. The sun was low in the sky. I ate chocolate cakes so I was full. Husband —— Wife Mr. Nicholls was a good husband. One year he arrived with a young lady, then came back when she was his wife. Identical —— Different The sisters were identical in appearance and character. Her appearance and character are different.
Ignite —— Extinguish The candle ignited the plastic. Firemen were called to extinguish the blaze. The boy came from a good home, was well educated and had every advantage.
Important —— Unimportant Happiness is more important than money. The exact details are unimportant. Important —— Trivial Nothing could be more important to me than my family. We were punished for the most trivial offences. In —— Out He took us for a drive in his new car.
Charlotte went to the window and looked out. Increase —— Decrease The population increased dramatically in the first half of the century. The number of people who have the disease has decreased significantly in recent years. Inside —— Outside The jewels were locked away inside the safe.
Instructor —— Pupil I managed to find a very good driving instructor. The new law reduces the number off pupils per class in the first four years of schooling. Joy —— Grief I leaped into the air with joy. Charles was overcome with grief. Junior —— Senior She started work as a junior reporter on a local newspaper.
Justice —— Injustice Children have a strong sense of justice. The movie deals with injustices suffered by Native Americans. Landlord —— Tenant The newspaper is negotiating with its landlord to reduce its rent. They had evicted their tenants for nonpayment of rent. The Tshirt was too small for him.
Laugh —— Cry I laugh at her ignorance. Lawful —— Unlawful The police may not interfere in lawful demonstrations The jury returned a verdict of unlawful killing. Lazy —— Diligent He felt too lazy to get out of bed. She is a diligent student. Lazy —— Industrious He felt too lazy to get out of bed. Most of the students I knew at college were serious and industrious. Leave —— Stay My baby gets upset when I leave the room. I decided to stay home. Legal —— Illegal What the company has done is perfectly legal.
They were involved in illegal activities. Lenient —— Strict School examiners say that marking has become more lenient in recent years. This company is very strict about punctuality. I dislike being the centre of attention. Live —— Die We used to live in London. Her husband died suddenly last week. I unlocked the door of the apartment and found that my wife was still awake.
Long —— Short He stretched out his long legs.
Opposite Words: 100 Opposite Words List for Kids in English
Neutral Avoiding Slang Slang describes informal words that are considered nonstandard English. Slang often changes with passing fads and may be used by or familiar to only a specific group of people. Most people use slang when they speak and in personal correspondence, such as emails, text messages, and instant messages. Slang is appropriate between friends in an informal context but should be avoided in formal academic writing. Writing at Work Frequent exposure to media and popular culture has desensitized many of us to slang.
In certain situations, using slang at work may not be problematic, but keep in mind that words can have a powerful effect. Slang in professional emails or during meetings may convey the wrong message or even mistakenly offend someone.
Rewrite the paragraph on your own sheet of paper. I felt like such an airhead when I got up to give my speech. As I walked toward the podium, I banged my knee on a chair. Man, I felt like such a klutz.
I was so stressed out about being up there. Wow, did I ever prove my point. My teacher said not to sweat it, though. Everyone gets nervous his or her first time speaking in public, and she said, with time, I would become a whiz at this speech giving stuff. I wonder if I have the guts to do it again. Collaboration: Please share with a classmate and compare your answers. Plain: Whenever my brother and I get into an argument, he always says something that makes me really angry.
Original: Whenever my brother and I get into an argument, he always says something that makes me want to go to the gym and punch the bag for a few hours. Fran had an axe to grind with Benny, and she planned to confront him that night at the party. The bottom line is that Greg was fired because he missed too many days of work.
Sometimes it is hard to make ends meet with just one paycheque. My brain is fried from pulling an all-nighter. Maria left the dishes in the sink all week to give Jeff a taste of his own medicine.
Avoiding Overly General Words Specific words and images make your writing more interesting to read. Whenever possible, avoid overly general words in your writing; instead, try to replace general language with particular nouns, verbs, and modifiers that convey details and that bring yours words to life. Add words that provide colour, texture, sound, and even smell to your writing. General: My new puppy is cute.
General: My teacher told us that plagiarism is bad. Specific: My teacher, Ms. Atwater, created a presentation detailing exactly how plagiarism is illegal and unethical. Write the new sentences on your own sheet of paper. Reilly got into her car and drove off.
I would like to travel to outer space because it would be amazing. Jane came home after a bad day at the office. The dog walked up the street. The coal miners were tired after a long day. The tropical fish are pretty. I sweat a lot after running. The goalie blocked the shot. I enjoyed my Mexican meal. Key Takeaways Using a dictionary and thesaurus as you write will improve your writing by improving your word choice.
Connotations of words may be positive, neutral, or negative. Writing Application Review a piece of writing that you have completed for school. However, during your academic studies, your instructors will ask you to write essays that are fact based and academic in tone. This means you will only be able to show your opinions by the choice of ideas you discuss and how you present your evidence.
Your instructors will expect you to compose emotion-free papers, which means you have to choose your words carefully. When you write pieces full of emotion without facts, the reader is less likely to trust your argument. Imagine that you feel very strongly on an issue but do not use facts to support your argument. What if the reader disagrees with you? Since you have not provided factual supporting evidence, the reader will not be convinced of your point of view.
In this section, we will explore the impact of emotional writing and the impact on the reader; we will also explore word choices and their possible connotations. To begin, look at the two passages in Self-Practice Exercise 2.
Look at the two passages below then answer the questions. Passage 1 What a glorious day! The beautiful sun is shining down on those basking, hoping to absorb its wonderful rays. The surf is playfully nudging the young children who are frolicking in the waves. A group of smiling young people laugh joyously as they plan an exciting game of volleyball.
As I watch their rousing game, I enjoy the feel of the warm sand playing between my toes. I love summer at the beach! Passage 2 It is way too hot! The sun is beating down on all those foolish enough to think it is healthy to get a suntan. They will be sorry when they burn. I keep seeing unsupervised children getting knocked down by the strong waves, and their negligent parents are nowhere to be seen.
Nearby, some rowdy teenagers keep laughing obnoxiously every time one in their group misses the volleyball; they are really terrible volleyball players. I would like to move from where I am sitting, but the sand is scorching hot and will burn my feet. I wish I had stayed home!
Questions What are the differences in the physical setting that these passages are describing? Are they in different locations or happening at different times of day? Are there different people involved? What evidence beyond sensory perceptions and personal opinion do the writers provide? Which one are you more likely to agree with?
Is this because it matches your personal opinion of the beach or because it is combined with supporting facts? It is clear that the two authors like or appreciate conditions and experiences differently. In Passage 1, the writer likes warm weather and does not mind noise, but in Passage 2, the writer would probably prefer to be at home in air conditioning. Ultimately, the passage that you connect with more is probably based on how you personally feel about going to the beach.
Because the passages are based solely on opinion, there is nothing in them to convince the reader that other perspectives or angles of vision are valid. This is why you need to use facts to back up your ideas when writing and of course include citations, which are discussed in Chapter 9: Citations and Referencing.
However, before we look at objective, fact-based writing, your first assignment will give you an opportunity to practise choosing your words to show differing perspectives; it will also help you to see how changing words can completely change the effect of the writing.
Assignment 1: angles of vision 2. Then write a focused description of the scene that will enable the reader to see what you see. You will actually have to write two descriptions of the same scene. One will be of the scene from a positive or favourable perspective; the other needs to convey a negative or unfavourable impression. Both descriptions must contain only factual details and must describe exactly the same scene from the same location at the same time. This means that you cannot just change the facts like making the weather cloudy instead of sunny; your descriptive words need to do the work for you.
Length: combined total of to words. You can start with either the positive or negative paragraph, but remember, you do not want to just substitute antonyms, or opposite words, when writing from the opposite angle. You want to step back from the scene, so to speak, and visualize how aspects of what you are experiencing or witnessing would appear to someone who did not feel the same way you do. You need to submit this assignment to your instructor for marking. Objective passage On the morning of Saturday, June 10, I decided to visit the beach.
The sky was clear with no clouds visible in the sky. I arrived at the beach at about , and it was already quite warm. Just before getting out of the car, I remembered to grab my 30 SPF sunscreen because I got burned so badly last year, and I do not want to experience that blistering again this year.
In front of me, there were five children who were about six years old playing in the foot-high waves; it looked like their parents were sitting watching them carefully from about four metres away probably just in case the waves got too high and they needed to dash to their children quickly. I chose a spot 10 metres to the right away from a group of young people, maybe 16 years old, playing volleyball, close enough to watch them having fun but far away enough to not get hit by any stray balls.
These teenagers must have been playing just for fun because it seemed like someone missed every second ball, and the entire group started laughing when they did. Thankfully I wore my sandals, so I could feel the warmth of the sand between my toes but protect my feet in case the sand got too hot. Questions How is this passage different from the subjective examples in Self-Practice Exercise 2. What evidence beyond sensory perceptions and personal opinion does the writer provide?
300+ Opposites (Antonyms) from A-Z with Great Examples
Friction is a force that opposes the movement of objects that are in contact with each other, and viscosity measures how hard it is for one fluid to slide over another. Higher viscosity leads to higher resistance. These concepts teach us a lot about how our environment can impede our movement.
Velocity Velocity is not equivalent to speed; the two are sometimes confused. Velocity is speed plus vector: how fast something gets somewhere. An object that moves two steps forward and then two steps back has moved at a certain speed but shows no velocity. The addition of the vector, that critical distinction, is what we should consider in practical life.
Leverage Most of the engineering marvels of the world were accomplished with applied leverage. Understanding where we can apply this model to the human world can be a source of great success. Two combustible elements alone are not enough. The reaction may slow or stop without the addition of catalysts.
Social systems, of course, take on many similar traits, and we can view catalysts in a similar light. Alloying When we combine various elements, we create new substances. The Mental Models of Biology 1. But of course, conditions change. Evolution Part Two: Adaptation and The Red Queen Effect Species tend to adapt to their surroundings in order to survive, given the combination of their genetics and their environment — an always-unavoidable combination. The evolution-by-natural-selection model leads to something of an arms race among species competing for limited resources.
When one species evolves an advantageous adaptation, a competing species must respond in kind or fail as a species. Standing still can mean falling behind. Ecosystems An ecosystem describes any group of organisms coexisting with the natural world.
Most ecosystems show diverse forms of life taking on different approaches to survival, with such pressures leading to varying behavior. Social systems can be seen in the same light as the physical ecosystems and many of the same conclusions can be made. Niches Most organisms find a niche: a method of competing and behaving for survival.
Usually, a species will select a niche for which it is best adapted. The danger arises when multiple species begin competing for the same niche, which can cause an extinction — there can be only so many species doing the same thing before limited resources give out. Replication A fundamental building block of diverse biological life is high-fidelity replication.
The fundamental unit of replication seems to be the DNA molecule, which provides a blueprint for the offspring to be built from physical building blocks.
There are a variety of replication methods, but most can be lumped into sexual and asexual. Cooperation Competition tends to describe most biological systems, but cooperation at various levels is just as important a dynamic. In fact, the cooperation of a bacterium and a simple cell probably created the first complex cell and all of the life we see around us.
Without cooperation, no group survives, and the cooperation of groups gives rise to even more complex versions of organization. Cooperation and competition tend to coexist at multiple levels. Thus the dilemma. This model shows up in economic life, in war, and in many other areas of practical human life. Hierarchical Organization Most complex biological organisms have an innate feel for how they should organize. While not all of them end up in hierarchical structures, many do, especially in the animal kingdom.
Human beings like to think they are outside of this, but they feel the hierarchical instinct as strongly as any other organism. This includes the Stanford Prison Experiment and Milgram Experiments, which demonstrated what humans learned practically many years before: the human bias towards being influenced by authority.
In a dominance hierarchy such as ours, we tend to look to the leader for guidance on behavior, especially in situations of stress or uncertainty. Thus, authority figures have a responsibility to act well, whether they like it or not. Incentives All creatures respond to incentives to keep themselves alive.
This is the basic insight of biology. Constant incentives will tend to cause a biological entity to have constant behavior, to an extent. Humans are included and are particularly great examples of the incentive-driven nature of biology; however, humans are complicated in that their incentives can be hidden or intangible. The rule of life is to repeat what works and has been rewarded.
Thus, we see in most instances that behavior is governed by a tendency to minimize energy usage when at all possible. The Mental Models of Systems Thinking 1. Feedback Loops All complex systems are subject to positive and negative feedback loops whereby A causes B, which in turn influences A and Cand so on — with higher-order effects frequently resulting from continual movement of the loop.
In a homeostatic system, a change in A is often brought back into line by an opposite change in B to maintain the balance of the system, as with the temperature bdo pvp class the human body or the behavior of an organizational culture. Equilibrium Homeostasis is the process through which systems self-regulate to maintain an equilibrium state that enables them to function in a changing environment.
Most of the time, they over or undershoot it by a little and must keep adjusting. Like a pilot flying a plane, the system is off course more often than on course. Everything within a homeostatic system contributes to keeping it within a range of equilibrium, so it is important to understand the limits of the range.
Bottlenecks A bottleneck describes the place at which a flow of a tangible or intangible is stopped, thus constraining it back from continuous movement. As with a clogged artery or a blocked drain, a bottleneck in production of any good or service can be small but have a disproportionate impact if it is in the critical path. However, bottlenecks can also be a source of inspiration as they force us reconsider if there are alternate pathways to success.
Scale One of the most important principles of systems is that they are sensitive to scale. Properties or behaviors tend to change when you scale them up or down.
In studying complex systems, we must always be roughly quantifying — in orders of magnitude, at least — the scale at which we are observing, analyzing, or predicting the system. Margin of Safety Similarly, engineers have also developed the habit of adding a margin for error into all calculations.
In an unknown world, driving a 9,pound bus over a bridge built to hold precisely 9, pounds is rarely seen as intelligent. Thus, on the whole, few modern bridges ever fail. In practical life outside of physical engineering, we can often profitably give ourselves margins as robust as the bridge system. Churn Insurance companies and subscription services are well aware of the concept of churn — every year, a certain number of customers are lost and must be replaced.
Algorithms are best known for their use in modern computing, but are a feature of biological life as well. For example, human DNA contains an algorithm for building a human being.
Critical mass A system becomes critical when it is about to jump discretely from one phase to another. The marginal utility of the last unit before the phase change is wildly higher than any unit before it. A frequently cited example is water turning from a liquid to a vapor when heated to a specific temperature. Emergence Higher-level behavior tends to emerge from the interaction of lower-order components. The result is frequently not linear — not a matter of simple addition — but rather non-linear, or exponential.
An important resulting property of emergent behavior is that it cannot be predicted from simply studying the component parts. Irreducibility We find that in most systems there are irreducible quantitative properties, such as complexity, minimums, time, and length.
Below the irreducible level, the desired result simply does not occur. One cannot get several women pregnant to reduce the amount of time needed to have one child, and one cannot reduce a successfully built automobile to a single part. These results are, to a defined point, irreducible.
Law of Diminishing Returns Related to scale, most important real-world results are subject to an eventual decrease of incremental value. A good example would be a poor family: Give them enough money to thrive, and they are no longer poor. But after a certain point, additional money will not improve their lot; there is a clear diminishing return of additional dollars at some roughly quantifiable point. Often, the law of diminishing returns veers into negative territory — i. The Mental Models of Numeracy 1.
Normal distributions can be contrasted with power law, or exponential, distributions. Compounding is the process by which we add interest to a fixed sum, which then earns interest on the previous sum and the newly added interest, and then earns interest on that amount, and so on ad infinitum. It is an exponential effect, rather than a linear, or additive, effect. Money is not the only thing that compounds; ideas and relationships do as well. In tangible realms, compounding is always subject to physical limits and diminishing returns; intangibles can compound more freely.
Compounding also leads to the time value of money, which underlies all of modern finance. Sampling When we want to get information about a population meaning a set of alike people, things, or eventswe usually need to look at a sample meaning a part of the population. It is usually not possible or even desirable to consider the entire population, so we aim for a sample that represents the whole.
As a rule of thumb, more measurements mean more accurate results, all else being equal. Small sample sizes can produce skewed results. Randomness Though the human brain has trouble comprehending it, much of the world is composed of random, non-sequential, non-ordered events.
Regression to the Mean In a normally distributed system, long deviations from the average will tend to return to that average with an increasing number of observations: the so-called Law of Large Numbers. We are often fooled by regression to the mean, as with a sick patient improving spontaneously around the same time they begin taking an herbal remedy, or a poorly performing sports team going on a winning streak.
We must be careful not to confuse statistically likely events with causal ones. Multiplying by Zero Any reasonably educated person knows that any number multiplied by zero, no matter how large the number, is still zero. This is true in human systems as well as mathematical ones. In some systems, a failure in one area can negate great effort in all other areas.
Equivalence The introduction of algebra allowed us to demonstrate mathematically and abstractly that two seemingly different things could be the same. By manipulating symbols, we can demonstrate equivalence or inequivalence, the use of which led humanity to untold engineering and technical abilities.
Chapter 2. Working with Words: Which Word Is Right?
Knowing at least the basics of algebra can allow us to understand a variety of important results. Surface Area The surface area of a three dimensional object is the amount of space on the outside of it. Thus, the more surface area you have, the more contact you have with your environment. Sometimes a high surface area is desirable: Our lungs and intestines have a huge surface area to increase the absorption of oxygen and nutrients.
Other times we want to reduce our exposure, such as limiting our internet exposure to reduce the attack surface.
Antonyms Examples 100, English Antonym Opposite Words List
Global and Local Maxima The maxima and minima of a mathematical function are the largest and smallest values over its domain. Although there is one maximum value, the global maximum, there 24 hours of lemons rules be smaller peaks of value in a given range, the local maxima.
Global and local maxima help us identify peaks, and if there is still potential to go higher or lower. It also reminds us that sometimes we have to go down to go back up. The Mental Models of Microeconomics 1. Opportunity Costs Doing one thing means not being able to do another. We live in a world of trade-offs, and the concept of opportunity cost rules all.
Motivated by personal incentives including but not limited to financial profitentrepreneurs will push to best one another in a never-ending game of creative one-upmanship, in the process destroying old ideas and replacing them with newer technology. Beware getting left behind. Comparative Advantage The Scottish economist David Ricardo had an unusual and non-intuitive insight: Two individuals, firms, or countries could benefit from trading with one another even if one of them was better at everything.
Comparative advantage is best seen as an applied opportunity cost: If it has the opportunity to trade, an entity gives up free gains in productivity by not focusing on what it does best. Specialization Pin Factory Another Scottish economist, Adam Smith, highlighted the advantages gained in a free-market system by specialization. He also cautioned, however, that each worker might not enjoy such a life; this is a trade-off of the specialization model.
Seizing the Middle In chess, the winning strategy is usually to seize control of the middle of the board, so as to maximize the potential moves that can be made and control the movement of the maximal number of pieces. The same strategy works profitably in business, as can be demonstrated by John D. Trademarks, Patents, and Copyrights These three concepts, along with other related ones, protect the creative work produced by enterprising individuals, thus creating additional incentives for creativity and promoting the creative-destruction model of capitalism.
Without these protections, information and creative workers have no defense against their work being freely distributed. Double-Entry Bookkeeping One of the marvels of modern capitalism has been the bookkeeping system introduced in Genoa in the 14th century.
The double-entry system requires that every entry, such as income, also be entered into another corresponding account. Correct double-entry bookkeeping acts as a check on potential accounting errors and allows for accurate records and thus, more accurate behavior by the owner of a firm.
Utility Marginal, Diminishing, Increasing The usefulness of additional units of any good tends to vary with scale. Marginal utility allows us to understand the value of one additional unit, and in most practical areas of life, that utility diminishes at some point.
As an example, giving water to a thirsty man has diminishing marginal utility with each additional unit, and can eventually kill him with enough units. Bribery Often ignored in mainstream economics, the concept of bribery is central to human systems: Given the chance, it is often easier to pay a certain agent to look the other way than to follow the rules. The enforcer of the rules is then neutralized.
Arbitrage Given two markets selling an identical good, an arbitrage exists if the good can profitably be bought in one market and sold at a profit in the other. This model is simple on its face, but can present itself in disguised forms: The only gas station in a mile radius is also an arbitrage as it can buy gasoline and sell it at the desired profit temporarily without interference.
Nearly all arbitrage situations eventually disappear as they are discovered and exploited. Supply and Demand The basic equation of biological and economic life is one of limited supply of necessary goods and competition for those goods. Just as biological entities compete for limited usable energy, so too do economic entities compete for limited customer wealth and limited demand for their products.
The point at which supply and demand for a given good are equal is called an equilibrium; however, in practical life, equilibrium points tend to be dynamic and changing, never static. Scarcity Game theory describes situations of conflict, limited resources, and competition.
Given a certain situation and a limited amount of resources and time, what decisions are competitors likely to make, and which should they make? One important note is that traditional game theory may describe humans as more rational than they really are. Game theory is theory, after all. Market Mr. Market was introduced by the investor Benjamin Graham in his seminal book The Intelligent Investor to represent the vicissitudes of the financial markets. As Graham explains, the markets are a bit like a moody neighbor, sometimes waking up happy and sometimes waking up sad — your job as an investor is to take advantage of him in his bad moods and sell to him in his good moods.
This attitude is contrasted to an efficient-market hypothesis in which Mr. Narrow He built the house low and wide. They rode along narrow country lanes.
Opposite Words List | Alphabetical List of 500 Opposite Words
We have got wet patches on the wall. Go and rub your hands dry. Light Gosh, the rain is so heavy! She had just woken from a deep sleep. Put the milk in a shallow dish. Funny The court case will do serious harm to my business.
The show was very funny — they were sending up sports commentators. Dangerous The boats in the harbor were safe during the storm. I wear blue-tinted glasses on sunny days. Cloudy sky drove the bathers off the beach. Partial He is a firm believer in total quality management. I could give it only partial support. Expensive I got a cheap flight at the last minute.
She was wearing an expensive new outfit. There Children here walk several miles to school. Altogether there were 38 people in the bus. Boring It is interesting to compare their situation and ours. I hate this stinking boring job! He is always polite to everyone. The room still has many of its original features. Very few students learn Latin now. One of the screws is loose. Useless It can be useful to write a short summary of your argument first.
Bottom He arrived breathless at the top of the stairs. Tiny The baby gripped my finger with her tiny hand. Division To be strong, a country must have unity.
There was a division of opinion on the matter. Host You are a frequent visitor at my house. Our host greeted us at the door. I thought he would change after we got married. Brother I share a bedroom with my sister. My brother is in his thirties. She had thick black hair and smooth dark skin. The rough cloth prickled my skin. The students sit in a circle on the floor. We had to stand in the snow every morning for roll call.